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Sunday, 29 March 2015

178) Commemorating the 175th Birth Anniversary of Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata (03.03.1869 – 19.05.1904) with the issue of Commemorative coins in the denominations of Rs.100/- and Rs.5/- by the Kolkata Mint in Proof, Uncirculated and Circulation coins categories:



178) Commemorating the 175th Birth Anniversary of Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata (03.03.1869 – 19.05.1904) with the issue of Commemorative coins in the denominations of Rs.100/- and Rs.5/- by the Kolkata Mint in Proof, Uncirculated and Circulation coins categories:


About Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata:


Jamshetji was born on 03.03.1869, at Navsari, Gujarat into a Parsi Zoroastrian family when Navsari was a part of the princely state of Baroda. He was an Indian pioneering industrialist, who is remembered today as the Founder of the Tata Group.

Jamshetji’s father Nusserwanji was an ambitious businessman who shortly thereafter relocated to Bombay (present day Mumbai) where he commenced his own business in commodities.

He engaged a private tutor to teach Jamshetji in Bombay and in 1853, Jamshetji was admitted to the Elphinstone Institute, in Bombay where his Tuition fee was waived as he was an excellent student with good prospects.

 In 1858, he passed out from Elphinstone Institute as a “green scholar” (which was the equivalent of present day graduation).

Thereafter, Jamshetji joined his father’s export trading firm Nusserwanji & Kaliandas, where he gained valuable experience in commodities and he helped set up its branches in China, Europe, Japan and the USA.

His knowledge expansion came through his successive trips abroad primarily to America, England and continental Europe etc. which convinced him that there was tremendous scope for Indian companies to forge through and make a foray in British dominated industries.

In December 1859, Jamshetji opened a new branch called Jamshetji & Ardeshir in Hongkong, trading in commodities like opium, cotton, tea, silk, camphor and Cinnamon and base and precious metals like copper, brass and gold etc.  from China and the Orient. When civil war in the USA broke out their textile mills were starved of cotton and Jamshetji seized upon an opportunity to ship cotton to the USA at huge profits. Nevertheless, this business opportunity soon dried up and his family had to sell their properties to pay off creditors.

Nusserwanji’s credibility in the market as an honest businessman who paid all his debts in time, again got his business running and making good profits when he sold large quantities of supplies to a British Army Regiment  headed to Abyssinia to attack King Theodore who had raised a banner of revolt against the British.

In 1868, Jamshetji started a trading company that later grew into the several subsidiaries of the Tata Group. Thus he founded the Tata group in this year.

In 1869, Jamshetji planned a new venture of setting up a cotton mill, when he purchased a disused oil mill at Chinchpokli in Bombay (present day Mumbai). He called this mill Alexandra Mill which immediately started earning huge profits. He wanted to set up a new mill with the most modern machinery and for this purpose he sold the Alexandra Mill two years later for a profit and went to England to plan out future business expansion plans based on modern technology, particularly to study the Lancashire cotton industry, who were the World’s best processors of cotton. Jamshetji had a vision to best the Lancashire cotton industry and make a name for Indian cotton products world-wide.

On 26.04.1873, he sailed to England passing through Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Turkey and Russia, studying and assessing business opportunities along the way.

In 1874, upon his return to Mumbai he decided to set up his new cotton mill at Nagpur. Short of funds, he approached a local money lender to help him out financially and upon his refusal to finance a green venture, he went about setting up his mill alone. It is said that when Jamshetji’s Mill started earning huge profits, the local moneylender rued his decision.

On 01.01.1877, the Nagpur Mill commenced business. It was the day when Queen Victoria was declared the Empress of India. To mark this occasion, Jamshetji named his Mill the “Empress Mill.

Meanwhile, Dadabhai Naoroji was spearheading the Swadeshi Movement, stressing that British Rule was creating poverty in India and that their trade rules were unfavourable to Indian businesses. Jamshetji too was inspired by Dadabhai Naoroji’s Swadeshi call and pledged to have Swadeshi Industries camparable to the best in the World.

He purchased another sick mill called “Dharamshree Mill” in the Kurla area of  Mumbai and named it  Swadeshi Mill which initially did not do well because of outdated machinery but later broke even , turned around and started reaping handsome profits after the installation of modern machineries.

Jamshetji set high standards for his procurement and processing procedures and his business establishments were noted for their efficiency, improved labour protection policies and using the finest grades of fibre as raw materials.

In 1887, Jamshetji formed Tata & Sons with his sons Dorabji and Ratanji offered a partnership to his cousin Ratan Dadabhai Tata who was a financial wizard.

Unsuccessful foray into a Shipping Line:

 The improved quality and economical pricing of the products of Swadeshi Mill gave stiff competition to the Lancashire cotton industry and the British created several hurdles for Jamshetji.

P & O Shipping, a British Company,  started charging higher freight rates from him than the British, to discourage Jamshetji from competing across the globe with the Lancashire cotton industry. This was highly ridiculous, as P & O shipping was subsidised by the Indian tax-payers. When Jamshetji tried to bypass P & O shipping by using Italian and Austrian shipping lines, the three European companies combined together to ensure that Jamshetji’s products would not ship out of India without charging him exhorbitant rates.

At this point, Jamshetji decided to foray into his own shipping line in collaboration with Nippon Yusen Kaisha Line which was called “Tata Line”. Tata Line offered much concessional freight rates, but the P & O combine undercut his rates to almost throwaway prices, just to run Tata Line out if business. Jamshetji had no alternative but to close down his shipping line – the first and only time that he conceded to British machinations!!

In 1892, Jamshetji, himself a noted philanthropist established the J.N. Tata Endowment which encouraged Indian students to pursue higher education and building up an intellectual capital in the country. The Tata family became one of the most important private funders of technical education and scientific research in India.  The endowment has funded thousands of Indian scholars, including such names as K.R. Narayanan and Raja Ramanna.

In 1893, Jamshetji Tata and Swami Vivekananda travelled aboard a ship to Canada – one was an industrialist and the other an ascetic – but they both shared a common vision – that of a self-reliant India and both worked towards that goal. A mutual admiration developed between them following their chance meeting.

Thereafter, Jamshetji began to concentrate on his four dream projectsSteel, Institute of Science, Power and a Grand Hotel in Bombay. Jamshetji’s futuristic vision was to build an India that would be an industrial power in its own right with its own steel plants, power plants and World Class universities.

The Tata Steel story:

In 1899, after years of exploration, good quality coal was found in Jharia and the time was ripe to set up his steel industry. Jamshetji visited USA to acquire in-depth knowledge of the steel industry.

When his first steel plant was taking shape, there was wide spread scepticism, particularly among the British bordering on derision, as to how would he raise the 20 million pounds sterling to set up his project. Nevertheless, investors queued up to put money in the public issue of Tata Steel. Such was the confidence in Jamshetji that people brought chairs, umbrellas, bedding and tiffin boxes to prepare for the long wait.

Like the Swadeshi Mill, Tata Steel was too purely a “Swadeshi” venture – by an Indian, of the Indians and for the Indians.

In 1901, he began organising India’s first large-scale iron and steel works which in 1907 were incorporated as the Tata Iron and Steel Company (present day Tata Steel) .

The Steel plant came up after Jamshetji passed away and became a stupendous success. The first Tata Steel ingot rolled out in 1912.

Despite this superlative success, the English were determined not to let his venture succeed and offer competition to British Steel.

When Tata Steel approached Sir Frederick Upcott, Chairman of the Indian Railways, Frederick is known to have said “Do you say that Tatas propose to make steel rails to British specifications? Why, I will undertake to eat every pound of steel rail they succeed in making”.

Yet Tata Steel produced excellent steel for the railways within a few years and the company stands among the very best even today. Indeed, Upcott did not stand true to his word, otherwise, he and his future generations would have had their work cut out “eating Tata produced steel” at every meal. Quipped Sir Dorabji Tata “If Sir Frederick Upcott were to keep his word, he surely would have some slight indigestion”.

On 02.01.1919, when Viceroy Chelmsford came to visit the Tata steel plant, he said to Dorabji “Mr. Tata, I sincerely admire your father’s enterprise. In his honour Sakchi will henceforth be known as Jamshedpur”. (The Tata Iron and Steel Plant was set up at Sakchi village in the present day Indian state of Jharkhand. The village has now grown into a town area within the modern city of Jamshedpur, named in his honour). A little later the Bihar government renamed Kalimati Railway station (near the Tata Steel plant) as Tatanagar Railway station.

Setting up the Institute of Science, Bangalore (Bengaluru):

Jamshetji was aware that industrial development cannot be managed without the support of modern scientific education.

In 1892, he founded the J.N. Tata Endowment Fund for students.

Nevertheless, he dreamt of setting up a university of advanced studies. He found the Viceroy Curzon’s response to his proposals very lackadaisical but despite Curzon’s negative attitude, he invited Nobel laureate Dr. William Ramsay to suggest locations for setting up a university at Bangalore. When Curzon obstinately refused to help him out with his University project, Jamshetji did an unthinkable act – he adopted the University as his “third son” after Dorabji and Ratanji and suitably amended his will to provide sufficient property or funds out of his estate after he passed away.

Jamshetji realised that there was an urgent need for business leaders to work in “partnership” with the spiritual leaders of society to build a modern India. The businessmen had wealth and ideas while the spiritual leaders had the pulse of the countrymen.

 Jamshetji needed help to set up a world-class Indian university in the face of still opposition from the British Viceroy Curzon, and he left no stone unturned to accomplish his vision. He spelt out his difficulties in establishing the University to Swami Vivekananda, requesting him to lead a crusade supporting this venture.

 Swami Vivekananda wrote an editorial in his Magazine “Prabudh Bharat” “The making of a prosperous Nation depends on the qualities of the head and heart like those possessed by Mr. Tata. A few more Tatas could change the face of India. Let the whole nation therefore, forgetful of class or sect interests, join in making it a success”.

He kept up the pressure through higher officials in London on Curzon until he finally agreed that the Tatas could set up their University of Advanced Research at Bangalore. The Indian Institute of Science a globally recognised institution came up in Bangalore in 1909, five years after Jamshetji’s passing away.

The tables were turned on Curzon, so much so, that when Jamshetji passed away, Curzon conceded that  "No Indian of the present generation had done more for the commerce and industry in India”.

The outreach of the University was unparalleled and helped set up several other institutions of repute – the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, the Indian Lac Research Institute, Ranchi and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai.

Foray into Hydro-electric power:

In 1900, Jamshetji envisioned the Bombay-area hydroelectric power plants (which later transformed into the Tata Power Company by 1906).

He explored setting up a hydropower plant, first at Jabalpur, then at Goa and lastly at Mumbai all of which projects could not get off the drawing board. Subsequently, he met Mr. Ghostling, an architect from Mumbai who suggested setting up the power plant at Lonavla-Khandala some 50 miles from Mumbai. His plan was to construct a lake and create an artificial waterfall which will provide electricity to Mumbai. Such a project had never been attempted before. The best material was procured from all over the globe – pipelines from Germany, waterwheels for generators from Switzerland, Generators from the USA and cables from England.

In February 1911, a few years after Jamshetji passed away, the foundation of the Walwhan dam at Lonavla was laid and in 1915, the project went live providing electricity to Bombay (present day Mumbai). The Tata Hydroelectric Power Supply Company (later Tata Power Company) is currently India’s largest private electricity company with an installed capacity of over 8000 Mega-Watts providing Hydro-electric power(a Renewable Natural Resource).

We stayed in Mumbai from 1999 to 2005 and were provided electricity by Tata Power. It was extremely low-cost and the power never went off even once, except for one occasion when there was a heavy storm in Mumbai and the Power failed for about two hours. The Tata electric Engineers got the power running in the shortest possible time. Such was Jamshetji’s enduring contribution to Mumbai through his vision of providing hydro-electric power to the Metropolis. Also, the Walwhan dam project was a must see for all tourists coming to Lonavla, what with its artificial waterfalls, landscaped gardens and birding spots.  After the dastardly terrorist attacks on the Taj Hotel Mumbai, on 26/11, we were disappointed to find on a later trip to Lonavla that the Walwhan dam Project had been closed to public viewing but I guess, it is better this way, rather than expose Jamshetji’s legacy to risk.

Setting up of the Taj Hotel in Mumbai:

Much like Mahatma Gandhi, who was “thrown off” a First Class coach while travelling by train in South Africa because it was meant for “Europeans only”, Jamshetji was subjected to an equally unsavoury incident when he was turned away from a hotel that displayed a sign board “Entry for Europeans Only”. He decided to set up the best hotel in the country in Mumbai.

On 01.11.1898, Jamshetji purchased two and a half acres of land opposite the Apollo Bunder in Mumbai. He spared no expense to make the Taj a fabulous hotel. He personally went to Dusseldorf to order electrical machinery, chandeliers from Berlin and cast iron pillars from a Paris Exhibition.

On 03.12.1903, the opening ceremony of the Taj Hotel was performed. Only the Taj Mahal Hotel (built at a cost of Rs.42 million) became a reality during Jamshetji’s lifetime. At that time, it was the only hotel in India to have electricity.

Even today, the Taj, Mumbai has remained one of the finest World-Class hotels in India and several hotels countrywide have been spun off as a part of its hotel chain.

His passing away:

In the same year (1900) he became seriously ill while on a business trip to Germany. On his doctor’s advice that perhaps the equitable climate of Europe may help him recover, he went to Europe for recuperation. The European climate did not help. Years of hectic schedules, travels across the world and a rich spicy diet took its toll on his health.

He passed away on 19.05.1904 at Bad Nauheim, Germany and was interred at the Parsi Burial ground in Brookwood Cemetery, Woking, England.

His Legacy:

Jamshetji is considered to be the “Father of Indian Industry”.

His contribution to Indian Industry is all the more significant, because he set up his integrated businesses/conglomerate against stiff opposition from the British Raj Authorities/European businesses who went all-out to ensure that every possible hurdle was placed in his path. Nevertheless, the Tata Group Companies stand testimony to his vision to develop India through World-Class industrialisation, trained and committed man-power, far-sighted strategies etc. which have constantly ensured that the Tata Group is second to none on the planet, least of all the British.

All his life he believed in the motto – Humata, Hukhta, Hvarshta – meaning “Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds”.

It is said that Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata turned mud into gold. Perhaps, it was simply skilful management, clear thinking and honesty that worked miracles for him. He had an uncanny knack for recognising a good business opportunity and a selfless will to improve the lot of his countrymen.

As a result of his conviction that business is sustainable only when it serves a larger societal purpose, the Tata group introduced benefits, several of these much before they became laws, like Pension and Gratuity (1877), Worker’s Provident Fund scheme (1901), eight-hour working day (1912), free medical aid (1915), schooling facility for children (1917) and maternity benefits (1921).

He was a man with a vision so clear that he could see “a tomorrow that was beyond his own life”. He dreamt such giant dreams of such stupendous proportions, that they could only be realised after he was no more.

He was aware of this and planned for it by preparing a competent team that was committed to his dream and inspired it with a kindred spirit. A man who thought big but also cared for the small. A man who provided generous scholarships to nurture the talent of tomorrow and made an endowment in his will for building India’s first institute of advanced scientific education – the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

With the establishment of his steel plant, he made a quantum shift in the nature of his business. From a country of traders, India stepped into a world of industrialisation.

 Jamshetji Tata was a Nationalist who worked for the progress of India without seeking or holding any position of power. His vision of environment-friendly energy and his initiatives for the welfare of the people associated with the Tata group are exemplary. His strategy included – industrializing the country and to build up an efficient human capital – and to conduct businesses in a manner that it positively impacted the quality of lives of the people who came in contact with them. For him, the society at large was not just another stakeholder in business, but the very purpose of its existence.

“Amar Chitra Katha” (Immortal Illustrated Stories), the publishing house which brings out Classics Illustrated comics/books on Indian mythology, legends, historical personalities etc. have brought out an illustrated volume titled “Jamshetji Tata – Amar Chitra Katha (Vol.737)” and another one titled "Architects of Modern India (Vol.10037)" in which he has been included as one of three top Industrialists who set India on a course with modernisation and prosperity.

His sons Sir Dorabji Jamshetji Tata and Sir Ratanji Tata pursued their father’s vision further and the Tata Iron and Steel Company became the largest privately owned steelmaker in India and the flagship of a group of companies producing textiles, steel, hydro-electric power, chemicals, agricultural equipment, trucks, automobiles, locomotives, consultancy, cement, hospitality (Taj Mahal Hotel – later, the Taj Group of Hotels) etc.

Thus, a little known Zoroastrian family became the foremost business house in India’s Industrial history.

Inspirational quotes that were the guiding philosophy of his life and approach to business:

Several inspiring quotes have been attributed to Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata, but I will mention the undernoted ones which perhaps were the cornerstone of his vision and his life’s mission:

“Freedom without the strength to support it and, if need be, defend it, would be a cruel delusion. And the strength to defend freedom can itself only come from widespread industrialisation and the infusion of modern science and technology into the country’s economic life.”

“In a free enterprise, the community is not just another stakeholder in the business but in fact the very existence of it”.

“There is one kind of charity common enough among us – it is that patchwork philanthropy which clothes the ragged, feeds the poor and heals the sick. I am far from decrying the noble spirit which seeks to help a poor or suffering fellow being. What advances a nation or a community is not so much to prop up its weakest and most helpless members, but to lift up the best and the most gifted, so as to make them of the greatest service to the country”

“Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick-growing variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens. Reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu temples, Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches”.

Commemorative Coins:

To mark the 175th Birth Anniversary of the pioneer of Indian industrialisation and the Founder of the Tata Group, Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata, limited edition Commemorative coins in the denominations of Rs.100/- and Rs.5/- have been issued by the Government of India/India Government Mint Kolkata in both Proof and Uncirculated varieties for Numismatists/Collectors and another coin in the denomination of Rs.5/- is being issued for general circulation depicting Jamshetji Tata on the Reverse.

Previously, commemorative coins have been issued to commemorate the 1857 First war of Indian Independence, milestones in Organisational history, Freedom fighters, Scientists etc. but this is the first time that a commemorative coin has been issued in honour of an industrialist and such an eminent one at that.

The purpose seems to be to highlight the role played by Indian Industries and business visionaries in making Indian businesses more progressive and contribute to the Nation’s development and prosperity, in keeping with the present Government’s “Make in India” campaign. This Commemorative coin stresses on what doyens of Indian industry can achieve, if they are driven by a patriotic zeal.
 The Obverse of the Rs.100/- and Rs.5/- coins depicts the Lion Capitol emblem of the Government of India with the motto (“Satyameva Jayate” - meaning “Truth Always Prevails) inscribed below it. On the left periphery of both denominations of coins is mentioned the name of the country “Bharat” (in Hindi/Devnagri script), while on the right periphery is mentioned the name of the issuing country “India” (in English). Below the Lion Capitol is given the Rupee symbol followed by the denominations of the coins in numerals “100” and “5” respectively.
 The Reverse of the Rs.100/- and Rs.5/- coins depicts a bust/portrait of Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata in the centre. On the upper periphery is  the inscription “175van Janamdivas-Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata” (in Hindi) and on the lower periphery is mentioned “175th Birth Anniversary-Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata” on both denominations of the coins. Below the portrait and above the lower peripheral inscription are mentioned the commemoration years – “1839-2014”.

The specifications of the coins are:

Denomination: Rs.100/- :

 Diameter: 44 mm; Shape Circular; Weight: 35 gms; Metal Composition: Quaternary Alloy (QA): Silver: 50%, Copper: 40%; Nickel 5%; Zinc: 5%. No. of Serrations on the Edge: 200.

Denomination: Rs. 5/- :

Diameter: 27 mm; Shape: Circular; Weight: 6 gms; Metal Composition: Nickel Brass: Copper: 75%; Zinc: 20 %; Nickel: 5 %. Edge: Smooth.

The Tata Group Executives and Employees have been offered a concessional rate for Proof Coins/Coin sets with the theme “175th Birth anniversary of Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata” being issued in the following categories:

Commemorative coin of Rs.100/- (with wooden box) – Rs.4243/-

Commemorative Coin Rs.5/- (with wooden box)         - Rs.2858/-

Commemorative coin Rs.100/- (without packing) -       Rs.2568/-

Commemorative Coin Rs.5/- (without packing) -          Rs.1183/-

Commemorative Coin combo Rs.100/- & Rs.5/-

(Combo with wooden box)             -       Rs.4500/-

(Combo without packing)               -       Rs.3704/-

(Let us see what the pricing of the coins is placed at for general public Numismatists/Collectors when the Coin Bookings commence at Kolkata Mint).

Previously, postage stamps by India-Post have been issued in 1958 and 1965 on Jamshetji. The 1958 stamps in Jamshetji’s name were released to commemorate 50 years of Steel Industry in India while the 1965 stamps were issued in recognition of Jamshetji’s contribution the industrialisation of the country.
Posted on 16.08.2015:
My friend Rajiv Agarwal has yesterday got me a Commemorative Coin Combo of Rs.100/- and Rs.5/- which has been received by Tata Group Executives from the Kolkata Mint on Jamshetji Tata. Scans of these coins are placed below for reference:

   The Reverse of the two coin Proof-set of Rs.100/- and Rs.5/-
    The Obverse of the two coin Proof-set of Rs.100/- and Rs.5/-

Monday, 23 March 2015

177) Currency & Coinage of Bangladesh: Taka and Poisa:



177) Currency & Coinage of Bangladesh: Taka and Poisa:

Bangladesh is located on the Bay of Bengal, between India and Burma. Its currency is called the “Taka” subdivided into 100 “Poisa” symbolised by the initials “Tk”.

(The origin of the term Taka: The word “Taka” derives from the Sanskrit word “Tangka” or “Tankha” which basically represented an ancient denomination of silver coins or copper coins. In Indian temples, it was common practice to use temple tokens (for example “Ram Tankas” or “Ram Darbar Tankhas” which were issued in copper, silver or gold). In India, the term “Taka” represented different connotations – in North India, a “Taka” was a copper coin equal to two paisa, in South India it was equal to four paise or one anna. However, in Bengal, one Taka was equal to one Rupee. Although Takas were very popular in Bengal, all over India Takas were informally accepted as money.  The Arab traveller Ibn Batuta has mentioned in his notes that the people of Bengal called their coins Taka, no matter what was the metallic content of the coins – gold, silver or copper).

Historical development of Bangladesh Coinage & Currency:

In the 2nd and 3rd century AD, the territories comprising Bangladesh were a part of Bengal and local kings issued beautiful Kushan style coins. In the late Gupta period, coinage received a distinctive style, while silver coins of the later Akara Dynasty in the 10th & 11th centuries, are particularly noteworthy.

In the medieval period, the coins reflected Indian, Burmese and Islamic influences. The Ghorids struck coins as did the Sultans of Bengal. During this period, the horseman motif in gold and silver tankas was quite prominent. Chittagong and Dacca (Jehangirnagar) were prolific mints during the Mughal period. There is an anecdote that the Mughal King Jehangir had a mobile mint (coin maker/engraver with his tools/kit) accompany him in his Royal Carriage, wherever he went, and this mobile mint struck some of the most beautiful gold/silver coins of the Mughal Empire, which he lavishly threw as charity to the public lined up along the roads to greet his elegant horse-drawn carriage.

Later, the gold mohurs struck by the East India Company under the Standard Coinage Act 1835 were circulated in the Bengal Presidency which also included the territories which comprise present day Bangladesh.

Still later, upon the partition of India in 1947, Bangladesh became a part of Pakistan & was named East Pakistan. The affluent West Pakistan which also controlled Government policies, tended to neglect East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh) which led to an armed uprising under the name of “Mukti Bahini” (meaning “Liberation Army”). In the support of the Mukti Bahini, the Indian Armed forces went to war with West Pakistan in 1971 resulting in East Pakistan being declared an independent country named as Bangladesh.

From 1971 to 1972, during the interim period, Pakistani currency circulated as the stop-gap currency after which it was replaced by the “Taka” subdivided into 100 “Poisha”.

The Poisha coinage depicted the “shapla” (lily) National Emblem and symbols representing agriculture. Many coins have been issued under the FAO Programme also.

Since 1991, some commemorative silver coins have been issued on the anniversary of Bangladesh Independence or on global concerns like conservation etc.

Central Bank of Bangladesh – the Bangladesh Bank:

The Bangladesh Bank is the Central Bank of Bangladesh,which was established on 16.12.1971. It is the first Central Bank in the World to subscribe to a “Green Banking Policy”. It is also a member of the Asian Clearing Union. As one of its functions, the Bank exercises monopoly over the issue of currency and Banknotes and supervises the issuance of all denominations of the Bangladeshi Taka except for Tk1 and Tk2 Banknotes which are issued by the Ministry of Finance of the Government of Bangladesh and bear the signature of the Finance secretary.

The Banknotes are printed by the Security Printing Corporation Bangladesh Ltd.

Banknotes of the Bangladeshi Taka:

The word “Taka” is also used generically to mean money, currency and Banknotes irrespective of which currency it is designated in.

Prior to the War of Liberation of Bangladesh, Banknotes issued by the State Bank of Pakistan circulated throughout Bangladesh. Even during this period, it was not uncommon for the Nationalists to stamp Pakistani Banknotes with “Bangladesh” in either Bengali or English or both. All such Banknotes were declared illegal tender by the then Pakistani government on 08.06.1971 in an attempt to subdue the Nationalist movement.

In 1971, when Bangladesh gained Independence, the Pakistani Rupee issued by the State Bank of Pakistan was the designated interim currency of the country till such time that the Bangladesh Taka was introduced.

 On 04.03.1972, the Taka was designated as the official currency of Bangladesh. Taka Banknotes in the denominations of Tk5, Tk10 and Tk100 were issued by the Bangladesh Bank along with Treasury Notes in the denomination of Tk1.

The Pakistan Rupee was in circulation till 1973 and had both Urdu and Bengali alphabets representing the official languages of both the West and erstwhile East Pakistan respectively, only the word “Taka” was continued in Bengali in the Bangladeshi currency and the Urdu appellation “Rupiya” was dropped henceforth.

In 1976, Banknotes in the denomination of Tk50 were circulated.

In 1977, Banknotes in the denomination of Tk500 were circulated.

In 1980, Banknotes in the denomination of Tk20 were issued.

In 1989, Tk2 Treasury Notes were introduced.

In 1993, the issue of Tk1 Treasury Notes was stopped.

In December 2000, Polymer Banknotes in the denominations of Tk10 were issued on an experimental basis, but were withdrawn because of their unpopularity. These Banknotes had Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rehman on the Front and the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Parliament House) on the Back.

In 2008, Tk1000 Banknotes were issued.

In 2011, a new series of Banknotes in the denominations of Tk2, Tk5, Tk100, Tk500 and Tk1000 were issued. All these Banknotes are dated 2011 and bear the portrait and watermark of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rehman, the Father of the Nation along with the National Martyr’s Monument in Savar in the centre.

On 07.03.2012, a new Series of Banknotes was circulated comprising denominations of Tk10, Tk20 and Tk50.

On 15.07.2012, Tk 50 denomination Banknotes were withdrawn from circulation because of a spelling mistake. Only a few of these Banknotes went into circulation. These Banknotes are now of interest to Collectors.

On 15.06.2014, a new Tk5 Banknote was issued which is similar to the previous one except for the colour which is brown with a white border.

Banknotes of the Bangladesh Taka (presently in circulation):

On the Front of the Tk2 Banknote is depicted the “Shaheed Minar”, while on the Back is depicted the National Bird – “doyel” or the Magpai Robin. The colour of this Banknote is orange and green and its dimensions are 100 mm x 60 mm. These Banknotes were dated 29.12.1988 and were first issued in 1989. They are in the process of being replaced by Tk2 coins.



(“Shahid Minar” or Martyrs Monument: is a National monument in Dhaka, Bangladesh which was established to commemorate those killed during the Bengali language Movement demonstrations on 21.02.1952. The first Shaheed Minar was built immediately after the events of 21.02.1952 but was demolished by the then Pakistani army and police within a few days. The second Shaheed Minar was built in 1963 and in 1972 was replaced by a third Shaheed Minar which stands today. The enormous design includes half-circular columns to symbolise the mother, with her fallen sons, standing on the monument’s central dias with a red sun shining behind. The fence on both sides is painted with lines from poems of legendary poets in iron letters. The basement of the Shaheed Minar also includes a 1500 sq.ft. mural representing the history of the Language Movement. In front are two statues of patriots who sacrificed their lives on 21.02.1952).

Magpie Robin Male-female image (Take Sumita’s Bird snaps)

National Bird – “doyel” or the Oriental Magpie Robin: The Magpie Robin (Copsychus saularis) is a small passerine bird about 19 cms long, which was previously classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher. They are distinctive black and white birds with a long tail that is held upright as they forage on the ground or perch conspicuously. The Bird is found in most of the Indian sub-continent and parts of Southeast Asia and are well-known for their mellifluous singing. The Oriental Magpie-Robin is the National bird of Bangladesh and is widely recognised as “Doyel” in that country.
 An image of the Front of a Tk2 Banknote issued in 2013 which shows a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, along with the Jatiyo Smriti Shoudho” or "National Martyr’s Memorial" together-with the Emblem/Coat of Arms of Bangladesh

An image of the Back of the Tk2 Banknote issued in 2013 which shows the Shahid Minar” or Martyrs Monument

On the Front of the Tk5 Banknote is depicted a “Mihrab or Mehrab”, while on the Back is depicted an Industrial landscape.  The colour of this Banknote is cream and its dimensions are 119 mm x 64 mm. These Banknotes were first issued on 02.06.1972, the presently circulating Banknotes were released into circulation on 08.10.2006. 

(Mihrab or Mehrab: A mihrab is a semi-circular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the “qibla” or the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and is an indication of the direction that Muslims should face when praying. Mihrabs vary in size, are usually ornately decorated and often designed to give the impression of an arched doorway or a passage to Mecca).
 On 15.06.2014, a new Tk5 Banknote has been issued which is similar to the previous one except for the back design and its colour which is brown with a white border.
 An image of the Front of a Tk5 Banknote issued in 2014.

 An image of the Back of a Tk5 Banknote issued in 2014 showing the Kusumba Masjid in Naogaon District of Bangladesh.


The Front of a Tk10 Banknote showing a portrait of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman & the Baitul Mukarram

 The Back of the Tk10 Banknote showing the Jatiyo Shangshad Bhaban
On the Front of the Tk 10 Banknote is depicted a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the left and “Baitul Mukarram on the right, while on the Back is depicted the “Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban”. The colour of this Banknote is pink and its dimensions are 122 mm x 59 mm.  These Banknotes were first issued on 02.06.1972, the presently circulating Banknotes were released into circulation on 21.09.2006. The above Banknote was issued on 14.12.2000.

(Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 17.03.1920-15.08.1975: He was a prominent Bengali Nationalist leader of Bangladesh. He headed the awami league and was the first President of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War who later became Prime Minister of Independent Bangladesh. He was also referred to as “Bangabandhu” or “Bongobondhu” or “Friend of Bengal” (“Bandhu” means “Friend” in Sanskrit). An advocate of socialism, he became very popular for his opposition to the ethnic and institutional discrimination against Bengalis, who comprised a majority of East Pakistan’s population. He demanded increased autonomy and strongly opposed the military rule of Ayub Khan and outlined a six-point autonomy plan for the then East Pakistan. In 1968, he was tried for allegedly conspiring with the Government of India against Pakistan, but was acquitted. He inspired millions across East Pakistan to engage in the struggle for self determination and Independence. He was arrested by the Pakistani army on 26.03.1971 in an action termed “Operation Searchlight”. During his nine months of detention, a guerrilla war between the Pakistani army and Bengali Nationalists supported by the Indian army broke out culminating in an all-out war between the Indian Armed Forces-Bangladesh Nationalists and the Pakistani army, and the Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971. Bangbandhu as Prime Minister struggled to tackle the problems of intense poverty and unemployment after the 1974 famine. With growing dissent, he established a one-party state but was assassinated by a disgruntled group of junior army officers on 15.08.1975 along with most of his family).



(Baitul Mukarram or Baytul Mukarrom: this is the National mosque of Bangladesh situated in Dhaka. The mosque has the capacity to accommodate 30,000 persons and is the tenth biggest mosque in the World. Extensions have been added to the mosque which can accommodate at least 10,000 more persons. The mosque has several modern architectural features blending with the traditional principles of Mughal architecture. The mosque’s large cube shape was designed to resemble that of the Ka’abah at Mecca).



(“Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban” or National Parliament House: is located in Dhaka. The Complex is one of the largest legislative complexes in the World comprising 200 acres. The design of the capital complex was developed taking into account the aesthetic heritage of Bengal, particularly the Ganges Delta. The construction of this complex was started in 1961 and was completed in 1982).



The Front of the Tk10 Banknote showing the Atiya Jame masjid/mosque.

 The Back of the Tk10 Banknote showing the Spillway of the Kaptai Dam
On the Front of another Tk 10 Banknote issued on 07.01.2002, is depicted the Atiya Jame mosque on the right, while on the Back is depicted a picture of the spillway of Kaptai Dam.

Atiya Jame Mosque: this mosque is situated in the village of Atiya under Delduar Thana in Tangail district, about six kms South of the district headquarters. It stands on the East bank of the Louhajang River. The mosque is small in size and is rectangular in plan, consisting of a square single domed prayer chamber and an attached rectangular corridor on the Eastern side covered with another three smaller domes.


Kaptai Dam: This Dam is on the Karnaphuli River at Kaptai, 65 km from Chittagong in Rangamati District, Bangladesh. It is an Earth-fill embankment dam with a reservoir known as Kaptai Lake with a water storage capacity of 6500 million cubic metres (approx). The primary purpose of the Dam and reservoir is to generate hydroelectric power. It is the only hydroelectric power plant in Bangladesh.
 The Front of the Tk10 Banknote showing a portrait of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
The Back  of the Tk10 Banknote showing the Lal Bagh Fort Mosque in Dhaka
 (Lalbagh Fort mosque: This is an incomplete 17th century mosque in the Mughal Fort complex near the river Buriganga in South-West Dhaka. Its construction was started in 1678 AD by Muhammad Shah Alam, son of Aurangzeb who later became Emperor himself. The mosque is a three domed structure with a water-tank on its eastern side. The construction of the mosque was never completed, because Shah Alam left Dhaka for Delhi, before its completion and his successors).

On the Front of another Tk 10 Banknote issued on 21.09.2006, is depicted a portrait of Bangababdhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the right, while on the Back is depicted a picture of the Lalbagh Fort Mosque, Dhaka.


 The Front of a Tk20 Banknote showing the "Choto Sona" Mosque

 The Front of a Tk20 Banknote showing four men processing jute.
On the Front of the Tk 20 Banknote is depicted the “Choto Sona” mosque, while on the Back is depicted 4 men washing jute. The colour of this Banknote is green and its dimensions are 130 mm x 60 mm.  These Banknotes were first issued on 20.09.1979 and released into circulation in 1980, the presently circulating Banknotes were first released into circulation on 13.07.2002. The above Banknote was issued in 2003.


(Choto Shona Mosque” (meaning “Small Golden Mosque”): This mosque is located in Chapai Nawabganj district of Bangladesh. The mosque is situated about 3 km. south of the Kotwali Gate and 0.5 km to the South-East of the Mughal Tahkhana complex in the Firozpur Quarter. The mosque was built during the reign of Sultan Hussain Shah between 1493 and 1519. The 15 domes of the mosque were once overlaid in gold, giving the mosque its name. The mosque is one of the best preserved monuments under protection of the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Bangladesh.



 The Front of a Tk50 Banknote showing the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban


 The Back of the Tk50 Banknote showing the Bagha Mosque.
On the Front of the Tk 50 Banknote is depicted the “Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban” while on the Back is depicted the “Bagha” Mosque. The colour of this Banknote is cream and lime green and its dimensions are 130 mm x 60 mm.  These Banknotes were first issued on 01.03.1976, the presently circulating Banknotes were released into circulation on 16.07.2006.



 (Bagha Mosque: The Bagha Mosque is located at Bagha, about 25 miles southeast of Rajshahi in Bangladesh. This mosque was built by Sultan Nesrat Shah in 1523 AD. The mosque is a richly decorated monument originally having ten original domes which have since fallen. The mosque was built of bricks with stone plinth, lintels and pillars. It was badly damaged during an earthquake in 1897. In 1978, the Department of Archaeology undertook the renovation of the mosque and restored to its original appearance. The mosque is being used for prayers at present).

On the Front of the Tk100 Banknote is depicted the National Monument, while on the Back is depicted the Jamuna Multi-Purpose Bridge. The colour of this Banknote is blue and its dimensions are 140 mm x 62 mm.  These Banknotes were first issued on 01.09.1972, the presently circulating Banknotes were released into circulation on 16.07.2006.
 National Monument: The “Jatiyo Smriti Shoudho” or National Martyr’s Memorial is the National Monument of Bangladesh. It stands as a symbol in the memory of the valour and the sacrifice of all those who gave their lives in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, in which the Indian Armed Forces too participated first clandestinely collaborating with the Bangladesh Nationalists in a Liberation Front called the “Mukti Bahini” and then in an all-out War against Pakistan, leading to the surrender of the entire Pakistani Army in the Eastern sector to the Indian Army. This War culminated in the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan. This monument is located in Savar, about 35 km North-West of Dhaka. The construction of the Memorial began in 1978 and it was completed in 1982. The highest point of the Memorial stands at 150 feet or about 46 metres. The Monument is composed of seven isosceles triangular pyramid shaped structures, with the central one being the tallest. There is an artificial lake and several mass graves in front of the main monument.



(Bangabandhu bridge or the Jamuna Multi-purpose Bridge or “Jomuna Bohumukhi Shetu” in Bengali:  This bridge on the river Jamuna was commissioned in Bangladesh in June 1998 and connects Bhuapur on the Jamuna’s East Bank to Sirajganj on its West Bank. It was the 11th longest bridge in South Asia at the time of construction and is presently ranked at the sixth longest. The Bridge is a strategic link between the Eastern and Western parts of Bangladesh and generates multifarious benefits for the people, promiting inter-regional trade in the country. Apart from faster movement of goods and passenger traffic by road and rail, it facilitated transmission of electricity and natural gas and integration of telecommunication links. The Bridge carries broad guage and metre guage rail tracks. The bridge is on the Asian Highway and the Trans-Asian Railway which when fully developed will provide continuous international road and railway links from Southeast Asia through Central Asia to Northwest Europe. The length of the Bridge is 4.8 kms. and its width is 18.5 metres.

On the Front of the Tk500 Banknote is depicted the National Monument, while on the Back is depicted the Supreme Court, Dhaka. The colour of this Banknote is purple and its dimensions are 153 mm x 69 mm.  These Banknotes were first issued on 15.12.1976, the presently circulating Banknotes were released into circulation on 24.10.2004.

On the Front of the Tk1000 Banknote is depicted a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the left and the Shahid Minar in the centre, while on the Back is depicted the Curzon Hall. The colour of this Banknote is reddish pink and its dimensions are 160 mm x 72 mm.  These Banknotes were first issued on 27.10.2008 including the presently circulating Banknotes.

 (Curzon Hall: The Curzon Hall named after Lord Curzon the then Viceroy of India, was built during the British Raj in India. The Hall houses the Faculty of Science at the University of Dhaka since 1921).

In 2011, a new series of Banknotes in the denominations of Tk2, Tk5, Tk100, Tk500 and Tk1000 were issued. All these Banknotes are dated 2011 and bear the portrait and watermark of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rehman, the Father of the Nation along with the National Martyr’s Monument in Savar in the centre.



   The Front of the Tk100 Banknote depicting Sheikh Mujibur Rahman


   The Back of the Tk100 Banknote depicting the Star Mosque
This Tk100 denomination Banknotes, was issued in 2013 under this new Series.  On the Front, it depicts a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the left and the National Monument in the centre, while on the Back it depicts the Tara Masjid or mosque in Dhaka.



Tara Masjid or Star Mosque: This is a mosque located in Amanitola area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The mosque has ornate designs and is decorated with motifs of blue stars. It was built in the first half of the 19th century as a three domed structure which was later converted into a five domed structure. The three mihrabs in the mosque and the doorways are decorated with mosaic floral patterns.



  The Front of the Tk500 Banknote depicting Sheikh Mujibur Rahman


  The Back of the Tk500 Banknote depicting a river-side agricultural scene.
This Tk500 denomination Banknotes, was issued in 2013 under this new Series.  On the Front, it depicts a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the left and the National Monument in the centre, while on the Back it depicts an Agricultural scene along the Banks of a river/canal, with farmers ploughing their fields with a four Oxen driven plough, Crops in another field are being irrigated through a pump drawing water from the river/canal. There is a group of fisherwomen vending their way through the fields.



  The Front of the Tk1000 Banknote depicting Sheikh Mujibur Rahman


  The Back of the Tk1000 Banknote depicting the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban.
This Tk1000 denomination Banknotes, was issued in 2014 under this new Series.  On the Front, it depicts a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the left and the National Monument in the centre, while on the Back it depicts the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban”. This Series has done away with the earlier symbol of the British Raj from its highest denomination Banknote.
New Series of Banknotes issued in 2013 and 2014:

  An image of the Front of a Tk2 Banknote issued in 2013 which shows a portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, along with the Jatiyo Smriti Shoudho” or "National Martyr’s Memorial" together-with the Emblem/Coat of Arms of Bangladesh.
 An image of the Back of the Tk2 Banknote issued in 2013 which shows the Shahid Minar” or Martyrs Monument.
          An image of the Front of a Tk5 Banknote issued in 2014. 
  An image of the Back of a Tk5 Banknote issued in 2014 showing the Kusumba Masjid in Naogaon District of Bangladesh.

    An image of the Front of a Tk10 Banknote issued in 2014. 
An image of the Back of a Tk10 Banknote issued in 2014 showing the Baitul Mukarram or Baytul Mukarrom Mosque
 An image of the Front of a Tk20 Banknote issued in 2014. 
An image of the Back of a Tk20 Banknote issued in 2014 showing the "Sixty Dome" Mosque or the "Shaat Gumbuj" Masjid in Bagerhat. It is the largest in the country from the Sultanate Period. It has been described as the most impressive Muslim Monument in the whole of the Indian sub-continent.
  An image of the Front of a Tk50 Banknote issued in 2014. 

An image of the Back of a Tk50 Banknote issued in 2014  depicts an Agricultural scene with farmers ploughing their fields with a two Oxen driven plough.
  An image of the Front of a Tk100 Banknote issued in 2013
An image of the Back of a Tk100 Banknote issued in 2013 showing the"Tara Masjid" in Dhaka.
Commemorative Banknotes:

On 21.12.2011, a Tk 40 Banknote was issued to commemorate the “40th Anniversary of Bangladesh” On the Front this Banknote bears the portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rehman, the Father of the Nation, along with the National Martyr’s Monument in Savar in the centre and on the Back it depicts six armed men. The colour of this Banknote was dark red, orange and green and its dimensions are 122 mm x 60 mm.

On 15.02.2012, a Tk60 Banknote was issued to commemorate “60 years of National movement”. On the Front, this Banknote depicts the Shaheed Minar” or Martyr’s Monument in Dhaka while on the Back it depicts five men who were veterans of the “Language Movement” and the First Shaheed Minar erected in 1952. The colour of this Banknote is yellow, brown, violet, orange and blue and its dimensions are 130 mm x 60 mm.

On 26.01.2013, a Tk25 Banknote was issued to commemorate the 25th Anniversary/silver jubilee of the Security Printing Corporation Ltd in Bangladesh. On the Front is depicted the National Monument in Savar, the designs of the previous Series of the Bangladesh Taka Banknotes & postage stamps, three spotted deer and the Magpie Robin (Doyel) bird. On the Back, is the Headquarters of the Security Printing Corporation Ltd. the colour of this Banknote is blue, purple and red and its dimensions are 123 mm x 60 mm.

On 08.07.2013, a Tk 100 Banknote was issued to commemorate the 100th Anniversary of the Bangladesh National Museum. On the Front of this Banknote is an 18th century terra cotta plaque of a horseman while on the Back is depicted the Bangladesh National Museum. The colour of this Banknote is blue and red and its dimensions are 140 mm x 62 mm.

(Bangladesh National Museum: This Museum is located at Shahbag, Dhaka and was established on 20.03.1913 as the Dhaka Museum. It was accorded the status of the National Museum of Bangladesh on 17.11.1983).

Coinage of Bangladesh:

In the 1973 Series, coins in the denominations of 5 and 10 Poisha (both denominations in Aluminium), 25 and 50 Poisha (both denominations in Steel). Each denomination had the National Emblem on the Obverse and the Rohu fish on the Reverse.

(Rohu or “Roho labeo”: This is a species of fish of the carp family found in rivers of South Asia. It is an omnivore which can attain a maximum length of 2 metres or 6.6 feet with a maximum weight of about 110 kg. or 240 pounds).

In 1974, coins were issued under the FAO Series in the denominations of 1, 5 10 Poisha (all Aluminium) having the National Emblem on the Obverse and Ornamental design and floral patterns on the Reverse.

Also, under this Series, 25 Poisha (steel) coins were issued with the same designs. Tk1 coins were also issued having the National Emblem on the Obverse and four members of a family and a slogan – “Planned Family – Food for All” on the Reverse
 Reverse of the 1977 Series (FAO Series) Five Poisha Aluminium coin showing a Plough and the industrial Wheel. On this coin is mentioned the country name on top and the denomination of the coin  in Bengali. The coins are dated 1973, (the year of the first ever Bangla Desh coin issues), although they were released into circulation in 1977.
In the 1977 Series also called the FAO Series, 5 Poisha Aluminium coins (Plough and Industrial wheel on the Reverse),
 10 Poisha Aluminium coins (man and woman seated on 2 horses facing each other on the Reverse), 25 Poisha Steel coins (Royal Bengal Tiger on the Reverse) and 50 Poisha Steel coins (Hilsha fish, Chicken, Pineapple and Banana on the Reverse).
 Obverse of a 1977 Series (FAO Series) Five Poisha Aluminium coin showing the National Emblem of Bangla Desh. The coins are dated 1973, (the year of the first ever Bangla Desh coin issues), although they were released into circulation in 1977.

On the Obverse of all these coins, the National Emblem was depicted.

Later issues include – 50 Poisha Steel coins (Hilsha fish, Chicken, Pineapple & Banana on the Reverse. First issued in 2001), Taka 1 Steel coins and golden coloured versions (having Four members of a family and a slogan – “Planned Family – Food for All” or Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the Reverse. First issued in 1996, 2003 and 2010 respectively), Taka 2 coins issued in steel (having the slogan “Education For All” or Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the Reverse. First issued in 2004 and 1010 respectively) and Taka 5 steel coins (having the Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge or the Bangladesh Bank logo on the Reverse. First issued in 1994 and 2012 respectively).

The National Emblem/Coat of Arms of Bangladesh or “the “Bangladeser Jatiyo Pratik”):


The National Emblem (or “Bangladeser Jatiyo Pratik” in Bengali) of Bangladesh was adopted shortly after the Liberation War in 1971.

On the Emblem is depicted a water lily or “Shapla” (the National flower of Bangladesh), which is bordered on the left & right peripheries  by rice sheaves. Above the water lily are three joined jute leaves on either side of which are two stars each. The water lily is symbolic of the many rivers which run through Bangladesh. There are five “wavy lines” below the water lily, which represent the rivers flowing through Bangladesh. The rice sheaves represent the staple food of the country which has a preponderance of rice crops growing all over the country. The four stars represent the four founding principles originally enshrined in the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972, which are – Nationalism, Secularism, Socialism and Democracy.

The Constitution of Bangladesh Article 4 (3) describes the Coat of Arms as – “The National Emblem of the Republic is the National flower Shapla (Nymphaea nouchali) resting on water, having on each side an ear of paddy and being surmounted by three connected leaves”.




(The above Banknotes are from the collection of Jayant Biswas. Article researched and written and Banknotes scanned by Rajeev Prasad)