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Friday, 25 January 2013

87) Coinage and Currency of Ghana - Cedi and Pesewas

87) Coins and Currency/Banknotes of Ghana - Cedi (and Pesewas):

Historical Development of Ghanaian currency/Coinage:

Sumita and I are visiting our friend in Kumasi, Ashanti Region, Ghana from the 1st February 2013 to 5th March 2013. This Post is an advance write-up on the Coinage and Currency of Ghana and the images/people/events which have figured on Ghana coins and Banknotes since Ghana's Independence from British Rule. 

Naturally, I will be supplementing this Post with pictures/scans of the Ghanaian coins and currency notes, which I will be coming across to complete this Post as and when the opportunity presents itself.

 Ghana means a “Warrior King”. Before the British colonised it, Ghana was divided into a number of Akan kingdoms which included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Akyem, the Bonoman, the Denkyira and the Fante. Non Akan states created by Ga and those by Dagomba also existed.

-     The West African Currency Board (WACB), prior to the Independence of Ghana was vested with the responsibility of overseeing the issue of Currency in Ghana. Accordingly, the West African Pound, Shillings and Pence were the units of Currency in Ghana until July 1958.

-     After Ghana attained Independence from British Rule, the Bank of Ghana became the new Monetary Authority, superseding the WACB and commenced issuing its own currency in the form of Ghana Pounds, Shillings and Pence on 14.07.1958.

-     In 1965, Ghana did away with the British Colonial Monetary System and adopted the Decimal system. Accordingly, the “Cedi” notes and “Pesewa” coins were introduced into circulation on 19.07.1965 which replaced the Ghana Pounds, Shillings and Pence.

The Bank of Ghana:

-     The Bank of Ghana is the Central Bank of Ghana which came into existence in 1957.

-     The precursor to the Central Bank of Ghana was the Bank of the Gold Coast.

-     With Independence from British Rule in sight, the concept of a Central Bank gained currency and in 1955, a Select Committee was set up by the Government, for giving recommendations for setting up a Central Bank.

-     The Bank of Gold Coast was accordingly, transformed into the Central Bank in 1956 which commenced operations in a modern five-storey building which houses both the Bank of Ghana and the Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB).

  An image  of the Bank of Ghana on High Street, Accra, Ghana.

The Ghana Cedi:

-     The “Cedi” is, presently, the unit of currency of Ghana. Cedi is derived from the word “Sedie” which means a “cowrie shell” which is an "Akan" word, and represents “shell money”. Interestingly, "Cowrie" or "Cowry" shells were once a form of currency used in Ghana which had wide acceptability and circulation, particularly, in the later part of the 19th century Ghana.

-     One Ghana Cedi is divided into 100 Ghana “pesewas” (Gp). (Interestingly, in India the coins are called "paise" an almost similar sounding generic term).

-     Several Ghana coins have also been issued in the past in the “Sika” denomination. (“Sika” in India also means a “coin”, but in Ghana it represents “gold” and “Sika” coins are more in the nature of “medallic” coinage).

The First Cedi (1965 - 1967):

-     The first Ghanaian Cedi (GHc) was issued on 19.07.1965 and replaced the Ghanaian Pound with an exchange value of 2.4 Cedis to 1 Ghanaian/British Pound, with one pesewa being equal to 1 penny. Also, one Cedi was equivalent to eight Shillings and Four Pence (8s 4d).

-     Coinage:

-     First Cedi coins were issued in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 pesewas. ½ and 1 penny coins were still being accepted in circulation as ½ and 1 pesewas. Interestingly, the “Pesewa” represented the smallest denomination of the gold-dust currency regime and the newly issued Pesewas replaced the British Colonial Penny.

-     The coins and currency exhibited the portrait of “Kwame Nkrumah”. This currency was demonetised on 22.02.1967.
- (Kwame Nkrumah (21.09.1909 – 27.04.1972) was an advocate by Profession, and was a prominent leader in the Gold Coast, which later was renamed as Ghana. He was arrested by the British Colonial government in 1948 for disturbances in Accra, Kumasi, which brought him into prominence as a leader of the Youth Movement. He spoke up for Self- Governance for the Gold Coast and many Ghanaians responded to his Call. He organised the Trade Unions and various other groups into the “Convention People’s Party” (CPP) and was a leading voice in Ghana’s freedom struggle. 
- Ultimately, thanks to the efforts of several Freedom Fighters, Ghana achieved its Independence on 06.03.1957 and he was hailed as the “Osagyefo” (or redeemer in “Twi” language). He was, also, one of the Founding Members of the “Organisation of African Unity” and the “United Gold Coast Convention” (UGCC).

-     He became the First Prime Minister of Ghana (06.03.1957 – 01.07.1960) and, then, the First President (01.07.1960 – 24.02.1966). Initially, he was very successful, however, became unpopular when he adopted some harsh and regressive measures including the Trade Union Act, 1958 and the Preventive Detention Act under which citizens were often held without trial and curtailed the duties of the Police. In 1964, a constitutional Amendment made the CPP the only legal Party and he became the President for life of both the Nation and the Party.

-       He was overthrown in February 1966 when he was visiting Vietnam and China in a military coup led by Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka and the National Liberation Council).


-     First Cedi Currency Notes were issued in the following denominations in 1965:

-     One Cedi notes had the picture of the “Bank of Ghana’ on the Back.

-     5 Cedi notes had the picture of the “Supreme Court’ on the Back.

    An image of the Building of the Supreme Court of      Ghana.

-     10 Cedi notes showed a depiction of the “Independence Arch” on the Back.
- (“Independence Arch” is a part of the “Independence Square”, which also has the “Independence Gate or Black Star Gate” in Accra, Ghana. On the Black Star Gate are inscribed the Motto “FREEDOM AND JUSTICE” which are also found below the Shield on the Coat of Arms of Ghana, representing National Aspirations.

-     The Independence Square is the second largest City Square in the World after Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China.

-     The Independence Square commemorates the Independence of Ghana and contains monuments to Ghana’s Independence struggle, including the Independence Arch, Independence Square and the Liberation Day Monument).  

   An image of the Independence or the Black Star Gate.

-     50 Cedi notes showed the “Beach” on the Back.

-     100 Cedi notes showed the “Kumasi Central Hospital” on the Back.( Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana, established in 1954 as the Kumasi Central Hospital and presently named after a legendary priest of Ashanti, is the second largest hospital in the Country and the only Tertiary Health Institution in the Ashanti Region. It is also the main referral hospital for Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions. The Hospital has about 1000 beds and specialises in all the major disciplines of Medicine).

   The above is an image of the "KATH" logo. The Medical symbol exhibits the  Staff of Hermes, the Messenger of the Gods in Greek Mythology, with two entwined snakes around it, as opposed to, the Rod of the Greek Physician Ascelpius with a single Filarial worm entwined against the Physician's stick/Rod.

-     1000 Cedi Notes showed the picture of the “Bank of Ghana”.

All the currency Notes showed the portrait of “Kwame Nkrumah” on the Front.

The Second Cedi (1967 – 2007):


-     After the removal of the CPP Government, the Military Government decided to replace the existing currency which bore the portrait of the then President, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah.

-     On 17.02.1967, the Second Cedi replaced the First Cedi at an exchange value of 1 Second Cedi to 1.2 First Cedi or 2 Second Cedis being equivalent to 1 Ghanaian/ British Pound.

-     This currency removed the portrait of Kwame Nkrumah from the Coins/ Banknotes.

-     In 1967, the second Cedi denominations issued were of ½, 1, 2 ½, 5, 10 and 20 pesewas.

 The above is an image of a five pesewa coin issued in 1967 for the first time. On the obverse, it shows the emblem of Ghana .  

   On the reverse is mentioned "Freedom and Justice", the motto of Ghana appearing on the emblem and "Ghana", the lettering being shown all along the periphery of the coin. In the centre are four cocoa beans within a circle. These coins were issued from 1967 to 1975.
  Only 300,00,000 of these coins were minted.The specifications of this coin are : metal composition: Cupronickel; Diameter: 19.5 mm, Weight: 2.5 gms. 
   Interestingly, this coin was discovered by me lying in the dust on a window sill in the house where Arvind stays. The dust coating seemed to indicate that it had been lying there for decades  or so I would like to believe. Now it is playing an important role in helping me to coin together the coinage development in Ghana's history.

-     Later, in 1979, higher denomination coins of 50 pesewa and 1 Cedi were issued.

-     Again, in 1991, owing to high inflation, as the value of the smaller denominations had vastly eroded, coins of higher denominations, viz., 10, 20, 50,and 100 Cedis were issued. These denominations of the Second Cedi continued to be in circulation till 2007. 

   Also, 200 cedi coins were issued during 1996-1998, which remained legal tender till 2007.

  Obverse of a 200 cedi coin issued in 1998 showing the emblem of Ghana.This face of the coin  bears a frosted outer periphery surrounding the emblem. 

Reverse of the above coin, with an image of a Cowrie (or Cedi) in the centre with the words "Freedom and Justice " and "Ghana" inscribed on the periphery of the coin.
      The specifications of this coin were: Metal Composition: Nickel plated steel; Weight : 8.6 gms; Diameter: 27.8 mm; Shape: Equilaterally curved Heptagon (7-sided).


-     Four Series were issued under the Second Cedi Banknotes, primarily with the objective to rein in rampant inflation and black marketing of commodities.

The First Series (issued in 1967):

-     Banknotes issued under this Series were in the undernoted denominations:

-     1 Cedi Note: The Front of the Note had “Cocoa”, while the Back of the Note had an image of a “Shield and Sword”.

-     5 Cedi Note: The Front and Back of the Note had images representing “carvings of Fauna”.

-     10 Cedi Note: The Front of the Note had images of “Art Projects”, while the back of the Note had images of “Statuettes”.

The Second Series (issued in 1970s):

-     Banknotes issued under this Series were in the following denominations:

-     1 Cedi Note: The Front of the Note had an image of a “Schoolgirl with headphones” while the Back of the Note had the picture of a “Cocoa farmer”. This Note was issued for the first time in 1975.

-     2 Cedi Note: The Front of the Note had an image of a “Farmer” and the Back of the Note showcased “Fishermen”. This Note was issued for the first time in 1977.

-     5 Cedi Note: The Front of the Note had an image of a “Market Woman” while the Back of the Note had an image of the “Larabanga mosque”. This Note was issued for the first time in 1977.
   (Larabanga mosque is a historic mosque built in  the Sudanese architectural style, in the village of Larabanga in Ghana.
-     In 2002, it was placed under the “World Monuments Watch” by the World monuments watch Fund as one of its minarets had collapsed in 2000 and the Structure was duly restored through World Monuments Fund).

    An image of the Larabanga mosque in Ghana.( For a complete study of the Larabanga mosque history and the Mystic stone, please click on the following link: The Larabanga mosque and the Mystic Stone.  A link is also given at the bottom of this article).

-     10 Cedi Note: The Front of the Note had an image of a “Pipe smoker”, while the Back of the Note had an image of the “Akosombo dam”. 
  (Akosombo Dam is also referred to as the Akosombo Hydroelectric Project is situated on the “Volta River” in south-eastern Ghana in the Akosombo Gorge and part of the Volta River Authority. 
   The construction of the Dam flooded a part of the Volta River Basin, which resulted in the creation of Lake Volta which is the largest man-made lake in the World spread over 8500 sq. kilometres or 3280 miles which is an area equal to about 3.6% of Ghana’s land mass). 
   This Note was issued for the first time in 1978.

The Third Series (issued in the 1980s):

-     This Series did not have a 1 Cedi Note and the smallest denomination issued under it was 2 Cedi.

-     2 Cedi Note:  The Front of this Note had the picture of a “School Girl”, while the Back of the Note showed “Field Workers”. This Note was issued in 1982.

-     5 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note showed a “Northerner”, while the Back of the Note showed “Lumberers”. This Note was issued in 1982.

-     10 Cedi Note: The front of this Note showed a “young Woman” while the Back of this Note showed “Fishermen”. This Note was issued in 1980.

-     20 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note showed an image of a “Miner”, while the Back of this Note showed a “Kente weaver”. This Note was issued in 1982.
   (Kente cloth, also, known as “nwentoma” or “woven cloth”, is a kind of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips and is traditionally used by the “Ewe” and “Ga” people of the Volta Region of Ghana and by the Akan people. It is a Royal and sacred cloth worn at times of extreme importance and was once the cloth of Kings. In the present day, the use of Kente has become wide-spread. It was mostly used in the Ghana, Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) and Togo. The word “Kente” comes from the word “kenten” which means basket.

-     Kente is the icon of African cultural heritage across the World and the Ashanti Kente is identified by its dazzling, multi-coloured patterns of bright colours, geometric shapes and bold designs. Names are given to various patterns and designs which are derived from several sources – proverbs, historical events, important Chiefs, Queen Mothers and plants.

-     Several meanings are ascribed to the colours of Kente cloth:

-     For example: black (represents maturation, intensified spiritual energy), blue (represents peacefulness, harmony and love),green (represents vegetation, planting, harvesting, growth and spiritual renewal), gold (represents Royalty, wealth, High Status, glory, spiritual purity), grey (represents healing and cleansing rituals),maroon (represents the colour of Mother Earth and Healing), pink or Purple (represents female essence of life), red (represents political and spiritual moods, bloodshed, sacrificial rites and death), silver (represents serenity, purity and joy and is associated with the Moon), white (represents purification rites and festive occasions) yellow (represents preciousness, royalty, wealth and Family).

-     50 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note showed an “Elderly Man”, while the Back of the Note showed “Cocoa Farmers”. This Note was issued in 1980.

-     Another 50 Cedi Note: was issued in 1986, which showed a “Young Boy” on the Front and “Workers Drying Grain” on the Back.    

The Fourth Series (also called the Second Cedi – Final Series which was issued in the 1990s and early 2000s):

-     This Series did away with all the lower denominations of Currency Notes, with a view to contain rampant inflation. The smallest denomination in this Series was 100 Cedis:

-     100 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note has the picture of a “Young woman”, while the Back of the Note shows “Truck loaders”. This Note was issued in 1990.

-     200 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note shows an “Old Man”, while the Back of this Note shows “Teachers and Students”. This Note was issued in 1992.

-     500 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note shows “the Black Star, Fist and “Gye Nyame”, while the Back of this Note shows a “Cocoa Tree and Farmers”. This Note was issued in 1994.
  (The Gye Nyame symbol is the best known Adinkra symbol from Ghana. Adinkra symbols are ancient visual symbols originally created by the “Akan” people of Ghana and the “Gyaman” of Cote d’Ivoire in West Africa, which represent concepts or aphorisms. More than 80 Adinkra symbols are recognized, as of now, particularly in the Ashanti Region,(where we will be staying for most of our trip to Ghana, hence we may have a good opportunity to study these symbols in more detail).

-     The Gye Nyame means “except for God” and signifies the all-knowing Power of God. It is used in decorations, clothing and Artwork. It is also a reflection of the religious character of the Ghanaian people.

-     Another meaning of this symbol is described as “This great panorama of Creation dates back to time immemorial, no one lives who saw its beginning and no one will live to see its end, EXCEPT GOD”).

   A Gye Nyame symbol.


   Some of the most commonly found 53 Adinkra symbols in Ghana. (For a complete study of the history and origin of all the 83 Adinkra symbols known so far, please read my detailed article at the following link: Adinkra symbols of Ghana/West Africa. (Another Link given below this post).

-     1000 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note shows “Diamonds”, while the Back of this Note shows “Cocoa Farmers”. This Note was issued in 1996.

-     5000 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note shows the “Coat of Arms” of Ghana, while the back of the Note shows a “Map, harbour and ships”. This Note was issued in 1998.

  ( The Ghana Coat of Arms is composed of a shield, divided into four quarters by a green St. George Cross, rimmed with gold. (Interestingly, St. George is the patron St. of England from which Ghana has recently gained Independence).The following symbols are represented in the four quarters:
i)            On the top left hand corner is the “Crossed Linguist’s Staff and Ceremonial Sword” on a blue background. It represents the Local Government.

ii)          On the top right hand corner is a “Heraldic Castle on a Heraldic Sea” with a light background. It represents the National Government.

iii)        On the bottom left hand corner is a “Cocoa Tree” which represents the Agricultural wealth of the Country.

iv)        On the bottom right hand corner is a “mine shaft”, representing the mineral wealth of the country.

v)          In the centre of the Green St. George’s Cross is a “Gold Lion” representing the continuing link between Ghana and the Commonwealth.

vi)        On the top of the Shield is the “Black Five-Pointed Star” rimmed with Gold positioned on a wreath of Red, Gold and Green colours, representing the Lone Star of African Freedom. The red represents the blood spilled to get Independence, the gold represents the mineral riches of the country, while, the green colour symbolises the rich agriculture and the Black Star is symbolic of African emancipation.

vii)      Two Eagles are supporters of the Shield on the left and right flanks. Around each of their necks hangs a Black Star suspended from a ribbon each of Ghana’s Colours – Red, Gold and Green. Each Eagle signifies a Protector with strength, with very clear, attentive and penetrating eyes, keeping a watch over the country.

viii)     The Motto “FREEDOM AND JUSTICE” is engraved below the Shield, representing National aspirations).

-     10000 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note showed the “Big Six”, while the Back of this Note showed the “Independence Arch”. This Note was issued in 2002.

-     20000 Cedi Note: The Front of this Note showed “Ephraim Amu”, while the Back of this Note showed the “National Theatre”. This Note was issued in 2002.
 The second Cedi did not fare well against the Ghanaian/British Pound and was devalued to an exchange rate of 2.45 Cedis to 1 Pound. High inflation led to further devaluations of the Second Cedi even against the US dollar.
   (Ephraim Amu (13.09.1899 – 02.01.1995) was a Ghanaian composer, musicologist and teacher. He is popular for composing several musical pieces and popularising the use of “Atenteben” a traditional Ghanaian bamboo flute throughout Ghana and composing popular music for it. Of Ephraim Amu’s compositions, “Yen Ara Asase Ni” has become a nationally acclaimed patriotic song that is performed at National functions. He believed in the dignity of labour and doing his own work himself. He preferred the title “Owura” to “Mister” as a prefix to his name. He also, promoted the use of African cultural artefacts and good technological and social inventions).
   (The National Theatre was opened in 1992 and is located in the Victoriaborg District of Accra, Ghana. It was built by the Chinese and gifted to Ghana by them. It houses the National Dance Company, the National Symphony Orchestra and the National Theatre Players.

-     A unique feature of this building is that when viewed from a distance, the whole building looks like a gigantic ship or a seagull spreading its wings).

  The above is an image of the National theatre gifted to Ghana by the People's Republic of China.
-     The Ghanaian economy tethered and with strict Government controls over product pricing, there was a thriving Black Market, so much so, that in the early eighties, although the official peg was 2.80 Second Cedis to $1.00, unofficially the exchange value had dipped to over 100 Second Cedis to a US dollar.

-     In 1979, the Government went into a containment mode by resorting to currency confiscating by issuing new Bank notes at a rate of 10 old banknotes for 7 new banknotes.

-     In 1982, a similar action took place when the 50 Cedi banknotes (highest denomination banknotes) were demonetised with a view to check black-marketing. Also, in the 1980s, the Government resorted to gradual devaluation and liberalisation of its strict price controls.

-     A fear grew that even the other currency denominations of the Second Cedi might be confiscated by the Government, leading to erosion in confidence in their own currency and Governance among the citizens.

-     In 1990, the Cedi went into a free float against foreign currencies. Nevertheless, inflation and erosion in confidence among the citizens continued to hurt Ghana’s economy and,

-     By 2007, the second Ghana Cedi was being exchanged at rates as high as 9500 Cedis for 1 US Dollar.

-     The Third Cedi (issued from 2007 onwards):

-     The Third Cedi, issued from 2007 onwards reintroduced smaller denomination Currency Notes but with a difference. The value of each new Cedi was taken as the equivalent of 10000 old Cedis. The new Ghana Pesewa accordingly was taken as the equivalent of one-hundredth of a new Ghana Cedi or 10000 old Pesewas or being the equivalent of 100 old Cedis.   


-     The new coins issued under the Third Cedi are the 1 Pesewa (equivalent to 100 old Cedis), 5 Pesewas (equivalent to 500 old Cedis), 10 Pesewas (equivalent to 1000 old Cedis), 20 Pesewas (equivalent to 2000 old Cedis), 50 pesewas (equivalent to 5000 old Cedis) and 1 Cedi (equivalent to 10000 old Cedis).

  Obverse of the one cedi bimetallic coin issued in 2007,showing the Emblem of Ghana.

Reverse of the above coin. The image shown here represents the scales of justice, symbolising equity and fairness in delivery of justice and reinforces the rule of law in Ghana. 

 Obverse of the 50 pesewa coin issued in 2007 showing the emblem of Ghana. 

  On the reverse  is the image of a market woman symbolising the significance of women in business and thier contribution in building the Ghanaian economy and society as a whole.
The specifications of this coin are : Metal composition : Nickel plated steel; weight: 6.08 gms; diameter: 26.4 mm Edge: reeded.

Obverse of the 20 pesewa coin issued in 2007 showing the emblem of Ghana.


On the reverse  isdepicted a cocoa pod representing the Agricultural wealth of Ghana and the economic importance of cocoa over the years for Ghana.

The specifications of this coin are : Metal composition : Cupro Nickel; weight: 4.4 gms; diameter: 23.5 mm Edge: plain.
 Obverse of the 10 pesewa coin issued in 2007 showing the emblem of Ghana.

On the reverse  is depicted a book which emphasises the role of Education in a democratic society. 
The specifications of this coin are : Metal composition : Cupro Nickel; weight: 3.23 gms; diameter: 20.4 mm Edge: reeded

 Obverse of the 5 pesewa coin issued in 2012 showing the emblem of Ghana.

On the reverse  is depicted a traditional horn blower representing the traditional mode of communication in Ghana. 
The specifications of this coin are : Metal composition : Nickel clad steel; weight: 2.5 gms; diameter: 18.0 mm Edge: reeded
  It is very difficult to come across a coin of this denomination in Ghana, because of its diminishing value for the users, although this denomination is still legal tender in Ghana.

 Obverse of the 1 pesewa coin issued in 2012 showing the emblem of Ghana.

On the reverse  is depicted the Adomi bridge highlighting the significance of infrastructure and freedom of movement of goods and the people in Ghana. 
   Like the 5 pesewa coin, although it is still legal tender, the one pesewa coin is rarely seen or come across in Ghana and vendors simply refuse to acknowlege or accept these coins, so much so that the Bank of Ghana has had to conduct studies on what to do with coins of this denomination. 
  (Interestingly, on the penultimate day of our stay in Ghana on the 4th March 2013, when Arvind took us to see the Accra Shopping Mall, we came across three "brand new" coins issued in 2007, which were found lying at different locations in the Mall, perhaps thrown away by exasperated shoppers who saw no use for the 1 pesewa coins. The coin figuring here happens to be one of those coins completing my collection of 2007 coin-issues in Ghana).
The specifications of this coin are : Metal composition : Copper plated steel; weight: 1.82 gms; diameter: 17.0 mm Edge: reeded.


-     The Third Cedi Banknotes were issued in the following denominations:

-     1 Cedi Note:  The one Cedi Note was red in colour. On the Front, it shows “The Big Six” and the “Independence Arch”. 
   (The “Big Six” were leaders and Founder-members of the “United Gold Coast Convention” (UGCC), which was the leading political party in the Gold Coast. They were detained by the colonial authorities in 1948 following disturbances leading to the killing of 3 World War II veterans (Sergeant Cornelius Frederick Adjetey, Private Odartey Lamptey and Corporal Attipoe) by the British Colonial Authorities (who were protesting about their poor conditions and unpaid war benefits and proposed to submit a memorandum to the British Authorities) in what is termed as the “Christiansborg Cross-Roads shooting”. 
   They were: Ebenezer Ako-Adjei, Edward Akufo-Addo (later Chief Justice and President of Ghana), J.B. Danquah, Kwame Nkrumah (later the First Prime minister and then First President of Ghana), Emmanuel Obetsebi-Lamptey and William Ofori Atta.

-     On the Back the 1 Cedi Note shows the “Akosombo Dam” which provides Electricity to Ghana. (In view of the severe power shortage to meet the current requirements, the Bui Dam is being built to take care of Ghana's Electricity requirements and supplement power generation from the Akosombo Dam). This Note was issued on 3.07.2007 and 06.03.2010.

-     2 Cedi Note: The Two Cedi Note is Beige in colour. On the Front it shows a portrait of “Kwame Nkrumah”. (Kwame in Twi language means "Saturday born") This note celebrates the Centenary of Nkrumah's birth in 1909.

-     On the Back this Note shows the “Parliament House”. This Note was issued on 06.03.2010.

   An image of the Parliament House of Ghana.

   Parliament of Ghana logo  design.

-     5 Cedi Note:  The Five Cedi Note is Blue in colour. On the Front it shows the “Big Six” and the “Independence Arch”.

-     On the Back this Note shows an image of the “Balme Library: University of Ghana”. These Notes were issued on 03.07.2007 and on 01.07.2011.

  (The Balme Library is located on the main campus of the University of Ghana and has six Departments and one special library for the physically handicapped students. It has over 1,00,000 books, 1000 microfilms and educational videos etc.

-     The University of Ghana is one of the oldest and largest of the 13 Ghanaian Universities. It is one of the best Universities in Africa and the most prestigious in West Africa. Founded as the University College, Gold Coast in 1948, it was originally affiliated to the University of London. It gained full university status in 1961 and has over 38000 students on its Rolls).

    An image of the Balme Library in the University of Ghana. Below is an image of the Library entrance.

-     10 Cedi Note: The Ten Cedi Note is Yellow-green in Colour. On the Front it shows the “Big Six” and the “Independence Arch”.

-     On the Back this Note shows an image of the “Bank of Ghana”. 10 Cedi Notes were issued on 03.07.2007 and on 01.07.2011.

-     20 Cedi Note: The twenty Cedi note is Purple in colour. On the Front it shows the “Big Six” and the “Independence Arch”.

-     On the Back this Note shows an image of the “Supreme Court”.  Note was issued on 03.07.2007 and 01.07.2011.

-     50 Cedi Note: The Fifty Cedi Note is Brown in colour. On the Front it shows the “Big Six” and the “Independence Arch”.

-     On the Back this Note shows an image of the “Christianborg Castle”. 50 Cedi Notes were under this Series were issued on 03.07.2007 and on  02.01.2012.(Osu Castle or Fort Christiansborg or Castle is located in Osu, Accra, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean’s Gulf of Guinea.

-     The first Fort was built by the Danish in the 1660s and changed hands between Denmark, Portugal, the Akwamu and Britain and was rebuilt several times.

  An image of the Christiansborg Fort as it existed during Danish possession in the 1660s.

  Christiansborg or Ozu Castle/Fort as it exists today.

- The Castle has largely served as the Seat of Government in Ghana with some interruptions).
   Proposal for 01.01.2015: West African States of Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone (English speaking countries) and Guinea (French speaking country) have jointly proposed to create a “West African Ecomonic and Monetary Zone (WAMZ) introduce a common currency, innovatively called the “Eco” from 01.01.2015. The ultimate goal is that the WAMZ will work towards a later day merger with the “West African Economic and Monetary Union” (WAEMU) to create a larger Economic bloc.
   (Note: All the coin/Banknote images shown above are of coins and notes which have been given by Arvind for my collection during our visit to Ghana).
     1) Adinkra symbols of Ghana, West Africa
     2) Lake Bosumchwe or Bosumchwi, Ghana 
     3) Mole National Park, Ghana 
     4) El Mina Castle/Fort, Ghana 
     5) Funerals in Ghana 
     6) Larabanga Mosque and the Mystic Stone 
     7) Food and culture of Ghana 
     8)  A visit to Ghana
     9) Oware: The ancient National Game of Ghana