1) Indo-Danish coins:
- Even on copper coins during the reigns of Frederik III and Christian V, the denominational value of the coin was not mentioned and the first time the value of the coins was mentioned only, during the reign of Frederik IV(1699-1730), who issued Cas (or Kas coins) in the denominations of 10, 4 and 2 Kas pieces.
The reverse of a coin showing the inscription "DOC" standing for the monogram of the first Danish Company to trade in India“Dansk Ostindisk Compagni”.
A two Fano (Fanam) coin issued in 1816.
This is an image of the only gold coin issued at the Danish mint at Tranquebar in 1789. This face (reverse) shows an image of the Hindu God Vishnu and this coin was called the "One Swami" coin. The other face (obverse) had a monogram "C7" standing for the reigning King Christian VII.
The other face of the above coin.
This coin was issued in 1709.
The legend on this coin mentions "HOLLANDIA". This coin was minted in 1700.
Two Stiver coins showing the Royal Arms. The coins below show a crowned Royal Arms.
A worn out Stiver coin.
The Reverse of this coin shows the Coat-of-Arms of the Five States of Holland.
In Portugal, the basic unit of currency was the "Real"(Plural - Reaes or Reis) which was a small copper coin. The denomination but not the coin became current in India where only certain gold pieces struck in Europe were in use. These were called "Cruzado" and its multiple was called the "Portuguez". The "Portuguez" was struck during the reigns of D. Manuel (1495-1521) and his successor D. John III (1521-1557). The "Cruzado" bore the Arms of Portugal with the Royal style Armillary Sphere on the obverse and on the reverse it had the Cross of Christ with the inscription "IN HOC SIGNO VINCES"(pronounced in Latin as "In Hawk Sig-noh Vin-Kace".This is a Latin rendering of the Greek phrase "en touto nika" meaning "By this sign you shall conquer". Interestingly, on the Grand Standard of a Commandery of the Knights Templars these words are inscribed over a blood-red Passion Cross. The "Cruzado" was the equivalent of the "Ducat".
A chart indicating Indo-French coin issues at various points of time for eg: "Three Swami" Pagoda, "Arkat" Rupee, Fanon(2 Royaliner), Two or Double Fanon (4 Royaliner), half Fanon (Royaliner), Doudou, Cache and Biche.
In this image of the Gaelic cock on this doudou, the cock image is rampant as it flexing its muscles and holding the globe in its right fore-claw indicating the hold of French Power over its possessions across the World.
In this image, the Gaelic cock is standing with its right claw on the Globe, showing French Authority over its possessions across the World.The year of issue is also mentioned "1817".
Two French doudous, one showing the Fleur - de - lis and the other coin showing a Gaelic Cock on the reverse.