A treasure trove of ancient Chinese , Indian and Islamic coinage:
Shanghai Museum : A brief:
Introductory plaque of the history of money circulation in China from the pre-Qin period (pre -221 B.C.), through the Qin and Han dynasties (221 B.C. - 220 AD), to the Song dynasty (960-1279 A.D.) when paper currency was brought into circulation, to the modern Chinese coins (1875 - 1908 A.D.).
Weight metal ingots and round coins with holes.
Introduction of silver ingots during the reign of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911 A.D.), in addition to the round coins with holes.
The molten metal was poured in the round compartments and the mould was folded through the middle and pressed till the coins had taken shape.
Some more varieties of moulds used for coin minting:
Since 1890, China adopted Western coin minting techniques and Chinese copper and silver coins (dollars) were issued for circulation.
This plaque tells us that engraved wooden plates or cast metal plates were used for the first time in the 10th century for paper money printing. Later, in the nineteenth century stone plate and machine printing was introduced for paper money printing. Some of the plate designs used for the purpose:
A manual, single coin minting machine, which minted coins by applying downward pressure of the screw bolt.
This plaque tells us that the above equipment was used to mint copper dollars in the late Qing period.
This plaque mentions the inflow of foreign coins into China through trade connections during the Ming and Qing eras. Some of the foreign gold coins which are shown below have inscriptions in English on the periphery of the coins:
The first coin on the left top hand side has the inscription" EL PODER EN LA CONSTITUCION" and the coin is dated 1846.
The second coin on the top right hand side has the inscription "4 CENTENARIO DO DESCOBRIMENTO DO BRASIL" and is dated "1900". Below the figure of the person depicted on the coin is mentioned "PADR ALVARES CABRAL".
The third coin shown on the bottom left hand side has the inscription "EPISCOPUS HARBERSTAD DUK BRUNSVIC ET LUNE HENRICUS JULIUS DEI GRA NOSTUIAI"
The fourth coin shown on the bottom right hand side has the inscription "BRUNSVICENSIS ET LUNE BURGENSIS FRIDERICUS ULRICUS DEI GRATIA".
A plaque telling us about the Paper money of the Qing Dynasty. The Central Government issued the notes of "Shunzhi Chaoguan", "Daqing Baochao", Hubu Guanpiao" and official bank exchange notes. The provincial Banks and financial institutions issued their own paper currency.
Paper currency exhibits from the Qing period.
It is interesting to know that when travellers/merchants transited on lonely roads with their gold, silver and other valuables, they were often robbed of their riches by robbers/thieves/dacoits on the way. This was one of the reasons that paper currency/promissory notes gained currency in usage by travellers travelling through unsafe passages.
Since 1840, several foreign countries have set up their own Banks for issuing currency notes in China.
Bank notes issued by foreign Banks in 1900 (Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation - a five dollars note issued from Shanghai) and 1907 (Deutsche Asiatische Bank - a 20 tael note issued from Peking).
A five dollars Bank Note issued by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia & China in Hong Kong in 1918. (For more on Coins and currency of Hong Kong, please click here ).
A 100 dollars note issued by the International Banking Corporation.
These gold coins are from the period of Khusro II (590-628 A.D).
These gold coins are from the period of Hormazd IV (579-590).
This plaque tells us that the early Kushan coinage was influenced by Greek and Roman mints having Greek lettering and Gods (1 - 3 A.D.). By the end of the first century , in the reign of Kushan King Vima Kadphises, the Kushans had their own mint which showed the King standing on the obverse and Shiva, the destroyer (in the Hindu Trilogy) standing with "Nandi" the Bull, (which was used as his Ride).
Coins of Kujula Kadphises.
1)Currency-and-Coins-of-Macau: A Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
2) Yuan Shih-Kai or "Fatman" or "Big Head" silver dollar
3) Currency of the People's Republic of China
4)Currency & Coinage of the Spl. Administrative Region of Hong Kong