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Thursday, 8 August 2013

112) Swami Vivekananda or “Shami Bibekanando” (in Bengali): Commemorating his 150th Birth Anniversary (12.01.1863 – 04.07.1902): Honouring Prominent Temples and Saints of India:

112) Swami Vivekananda or “Shami Bibekanando” (in Bengali): Commemorating his 150th Birth Anniversary (12.01.1863 – 04.07.1902): Honouring Prominent Temples and Saints of India:

Swami Vivekananda – the early formative years:
Swami Vivekananda was born in Calcutta (then the capital of British India and present day Kolkata in the Eastern State of West Bengal) on 12.01.1863 in a Bengali Kayastha family. “Vivek” means “wisdom with discretion” and “Anand” means “blissful joy”. His earlier name was Narendra Nath.
Two factors were responsible towards attracting him into spiritual leanings early on in his life and influenced his thinking and personality. One, his grandfather Durgacharan Datta left his family and became a monk at the age of twenty-five. Two, his father Vishvanath Datta had a progressive rational attitude while his mother had a religious temperament.

He was given to meditating from a very early age and spent much time meditating before images of deities like Lord Shiva, Durga, Ram and Sita etc. and was fascinated by wandering monks and saints, in the tradition of his grandfather.

His education:
From 1871 to 1877, he studied at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s Metropolitan Institution.

In 1879, he got first division marks in the Presidency College Entrance examination and was the only candidate to receive the First Division in that year.

His reading interests included Philosophy, Religion, Social science, Art and Literature. He had a very good knowledge of the Hindu scriptures – the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, Mahabharat, Ramayan and the Purans, Sanskrit scriptures and Bengali Literature. His extra-curricular activities included a training in Indian classical music, sports etc. In addition, he studied the Western logic, Western Philosophy and European History at the “General Assembly’s Institution (later renamed as the “Scottish Church College”). He translated Herbert Spencer’s book “Education” into Bengali.

Commencement of his Spiritual Journey/Search:

He became fascinated with the concept of God and asked various yogis and mendicants and prominent well-read persons, whether they had seen God. He was not satisfied with any of their answers. As part of this search he joined a Freemason lodge and a breakaway faction of the “Brahmo Samaj”. His attraction towards the Brahmo Samaj was through their beliefs in a formless God and shunning of idol worship.

His meeting with Ramakrishna was by providence when his College Principal suggested during a reading of William Wordsworth’s poem “The Excursion” that to understand the true meaning of the term “trance” mentioned in the poem, the students should visit Ramakrishna.

Having thus learnt of Ramakrishna, in November 1881, he visited Dakhineshwar where Ramakrishna stayed and though not convinced with what he saw nevertheless was drawn by Ramakrishna’s personality. He asked Ramakrishna “Sir, have you seen God?” to which Ramakrishna immediately replied “Yes, I have. I see Him as clearly as I see you, only in a much intenser sense”.

Narendra was intrigued by this answer and later visited Ramakrishna several times. He was initially not convinced about Ramakrishna’s level of spiritual achievements terming his trance – like conditions, visions and ecstasies as mere hallucination and figments of imagination. As a follower of the Brahmo Samaj, Narendra Nath was opposed to Ramakrishna’s worship of the Goddess Kali and rejected the “Advaita Vedanta” of identifying with the Absolute as blasphemy. To all his doubts Ramakrishna would simply ask him to look at issues from all angles with a holistic approach.

In 1984, upon the sudden passing away of his father, Narendra Nath’s family fell upon financial difficulties and he started visiting Ramakrishna more and more seeking solace. It was around this time that he realised that he was ready to embrace spirituality and accept Ramakrishna as his guru, after renouncing everything else in the material world.

In 1885, Ramakrishna suffered from throat cancer and was looked after by his disciples during his last days at Cossipore where he was evacuated to. During this time Ramakrishna conferred the ochre robes on his disciples thus forming his first monastic order.

Narendra was appointed the leader of the monastic group, and was taught among other things by Ramakrishna, that, the service to human beings was the most effective way to worship God. Shortly thereafter, Ramakrishna passed away on 16.08.1886.

Setting up of the First Ramakrishna Math at Baranagar:

The monks led by Narendra found it very difficuly to sustain themselves as the financial donations from the admirers of Ramakrishna petered off after his passing away. Many members of the monastic order left the group, disillusioned with their prospects in continuing with the group in the absence of Ramakrishna and the ensuing hardships.

Narendra was left with no alternative but to convert a dilapidated house into a new Ramakrishna Math for the remaining disciples.

In 1887, Narendra together with 8 disciples took formal monastic vows and the name “Swami Bibidishananda” which was changed to “Vivekananda” in 1893 at the instance of Maharaja Ajit Singh of Khetri. 

In 1888, Swami Vivekananda left the monastery as a “Parivrajaka” (or a wandering monk), his sole possessions being a “Kamandalu (a water pot), a staff and two books – the “Bhagavad Gita” and “The imitation of Christ”.

From 1888 to 1893, he travelled extensively throughout India visiting centres of learning and acquainting himself with the diverse religious traditions and social customs. During his travels he met and stayed with Indians from all religions and walks of life: scholars, prominent officials, Princes, Kings, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, low-caste workers etc. 

Visit to the USA to attend the Parliament of World Religions:

In 1893, he visited several cities in Japan enroute to attend the Parliament of the World Religions in Chicago held from 11.09.1893 to 27.09.1893, but he was disappointed on reaching USA to learn that his participation as a delegate would have to be sponsored by a “bona fide” organisation. 

In the interim, he was invited to speak at Harvard University at the instance of Prof. John Wright, who urged Vivekananda to attend the Chicago Conference and took the help of his friends to have Vivekananda nominated to attend the Parliament.

On the opening day of the Parliament of the World Religions at the Art Institute of Chicago Vivekananda gave a short introductory speech introducing India and Hinduism. He began with the words “Sisters and brothers of America”, an introduction which gave him a two-minute standing ovation from the gathered delegates numbering about 7000. 

Thereafter he proceeded to address the “youngest of the Nations” (USA) on behalf of the “most ancient order of monks in the World, the Vedic order of Sannyasins, a religion which has taught the World both tolerance and universal acceptance”. 

He quoted two illustrative passages from the “Shiva mahimna stotram”: “As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to thee!!” and “Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me”. 

This short address voiced the essence of the universality of the Parliament and was very well received.

The Parliament President John Henry Burrows showered praises upon him addressing him as the “Orange-monk” and stating that India, the “Mother of all Religions” was wonderfully represented by Swami Vivekananda. 

The Newspapers led by the New York Critique, the New York Herald and the Boston Evening Transcript wrote extensive articles on him mentioning him variously as “the cyclonic monk from India”, “an orator by divine right” , “the greatest figure in the Parliament of World Religions”, “a great favourite at the Parliament – if he merely crosses the platform, he is applauded”. The New York Herald went to the extent of inter alia, mentioning that “After hearing him we feel how foolish it is to send missionaries to this learned nation”.

Vivekananda addressed the Parliament several times thereafter with the main focus of his speeches being the common theme of universality and religious tolerance. 

After gaining immense popularity, Vivekananda spent the next 2 years lecturing in the USA mainly in Chicago, Detroit, Boston and New York. He was offered academic positions in the area of Eastern Philosophy at the Harvard University and Columbia University, both positions which he declined as he had declared himself a wandering monk. 

In 1894, he founded the “Vedanta Society” of New York.

Also, in 1893, when he travelled together with Jamshetji Tata from Yokohama to Chicago, he inspired Tata to set up a a research and educational institution “Research Institute of Science”.

During 1895 to 1896, he travelled to England twice and several European countries giving several addresses/discourses. Several prominent persons in the USA and Europe/U.K. became his ardent admirers and several others became his disciples/followers.

In 1897, he founded the Ramakrishna Mission in Calcutta for rendering social service. The mission’s ideals are based on “karma yoga” and it is managed/governed by the trustees of Ramakrishna Math having their headquarters at Belur Math near Calcutta all having been founded by him.

In the same year, he also founded two other monasteries one called the “Advaitya Ashram” at Mayavati near Almora (in the present State of Uttarakhand, India) in the Himalayas and the other in Madras (present day Chennai in the present State of Tamil Nadu, India).

In 1899, the Baranagar Math was shifted to Belur and is called the “Belur Math”.

During 1899-1902, despite declining health (owing to asthma, diabetes and chronic insomnia), he visited the USA, England, France, Egypt, Turkey, etc. He could not attend the Congress of Religions in 1901 in Japan due to his failing health.

Death and Legacy:

Even on the day he passed away (04.07.1902), he meditated at the chapel at Belur Math for three hours and thereafter taught “Shukla-Yajur-Veda”, Sanskrit grammer and philosophy to students. Later, he discussed with his colleagues plans to set up a Vedic College at the Ramakrishna Math. He retired for the night at 7.00 p.m. and attained “mahasamadhi” (eternal sleep) at 9.10 p.m.

He revitalised Hinduism in India and abroad and contributed to the popularity of yoga, transcendental meditation and spiritual self-improvement in the Western World as  well as introduced them to the Indian philosophy of Vedanta.

He focussed on interfaith awareness and in bringing Hinduism to be recognised as a major world religion during the late 19th century as well as the concept of Nationalism in British India.

The Nationalist movement during the British Raj received an impetus as his concepts crystallised the Nationalistic ideals. He propounded that addressing the poverty of the teeming millions in India was a prerequisite for national awakening. He thus gave the National movement in India a new colour and perspective. Sri Aurobindo considered him to be the one who awakened India spiritually. He inspired several Freedom fighters through his concepts and ideals. Mahatma Gandhi regarded him as the monk who “maintained Hindu religion by cutting down the deadwood of tradition”.

He influenced several leading Western personalities,  with his Vedic teachings.

A section of Michigan Avenue, a major thoroughfare in Chicago has been named “Swami Vivekananda Way”.

The West Bengal State Police Academy has been named after him.

The State Technical University in Chhatisgarh has been named after him.

In India, he is regarded as a patriotic saint and his birthday (12th January) is celebrated as “National Youth Day”.

His beliefs and teachings:

He believed that a country’s future depended on its people, therefore, his teachings focussed primarily on human development.

He wanted to share noble thoughts and concepts with the poorest and the meanest persons in the hope that a sea change in their thinking would bring about advancement for the country at the macro-level.

He believed that the essence of Hinduism was best embodied in the Vedanta philosophy as described by Adi Shankracharya. He believed that every soul was divine and that the goal was to manifest this divinity within by controlling nature – both external and internal through work, worship or mental discipline or philosophy by one or all of these methods for the soul to be free. All doctrines, dogmas, rituals, books, places of worship etc. were secondary to this primary goal.

He believed that morality is controlled by the mind and truth, purity and unselfishness strengthened morality.

He supported “brahmacharya” (celibacy) believing that it was the source of one’s physical and mental stamina and eloquence. He believed that success would come only through focussed thought and action.

He believed that all sects within Hinduism are but different paths towards the same goal.

Swami Vivekananda’s books and literature:

He was a prolific writer both in Bengali and English. Most of his published works were compilations of his lectures/discourses around the World. He is also credited with composing several songs and poems on the Mother Goddess Kali. He believed that words should clarify ideas rather than demonstrate the speaker’s prowess/knowledge and his writings and speeches testify to that effect. He composed “Khandana Bhava-Banbhana” a prayer song dedicated to Ramakrishna (1898).

He also started two journals – “Prabuddha Bharata” in English and “Udbodhan” in Bengali.

Several books were published during his lifetime – Karma Yoga (1896), Raja Yoga (1896/1899), Vedanta Philosophy: An address before the Graduate Philosophical Society (1896), Lectures from Colombo to Almora (1897), Bartaman Bharat (in Bengali, meaning “Present day India” 1899), My Master (1901), Vedanta Philosophy :lectures on Jnana Yoga 
 (1902) etc.

Some books published after his passing away include “Addresses on Bhakti Yoga”, “The East and the West”, “Narada Bhakti Sutras”, “Para Bhakti or Supreme Devotion”, Practical Vedanta, Jnana Yoga, Speeches of Swami Vivekananda : a comprehensive collection, Complete Works: a collection of his writings, lectures and discourses (9 volumes) etc.

Celebrating his 150th birth Anniversary in 2013:

Year –long celebrations, events and programmes are being organised by branches of the Ramakrishna Math, the Ramakrishna Mission, Central and State Governments in India, educational institutions and youth groups.

A Swami Vivekananda Values Education Project has been launched in 2010, with the objectives of involving youth with competitions, essays, discussions and study circles as well as publishing Vivekananda’s works in several languages, all of which are being given an impetus during the celebrations.

A film titled “The Light: Swami Vivekananda” has been made by a Bengali film Director “Tutu” (Utpal) Sinha for this occasion.

The year 2013 is being observed as a commemorative year for his 150th Birth Anniversary by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.

The Indian Railways ran a special exhibition on Swami Vivekananda aboard a special train which stopped at several important towns across India.

We visited this exhibition when the Train stopped at Pune for a couple of days. Supported by the local branch of the Ramakrishna mission, we were treated to visual display boards of his life and times, his beliefs, quotations and his works and published works on him which were indeed  a wonderful treat.

The Commemorative coins issued on the occasion:

Kolkata Mint has brought out a two – coin commemorative set for this occasion. A Rs.150/- coin together with a Rs.5/- coin have been released both as Proof and Circulating coin sets. In addition it has been announced by the Reserve Bank of India in mid-July 2013 that a five rupee circulating coin is also being issued for this occasion. 

I have received the two coin proof commemorative coin set from the Kolkata mint within two months of close of Bookings for these coin sets, which shows the remarkable levels of efficiency achieved by the Kolkata Mint in scaling down the delivery schedules from 6-8 months earlier on and setting an example for the other Mints to follow.

The above image is that of the cover of the two-coin Proof set album, showing a familiar image of Swami Vivekananda. To the bottom right is a tag indicating that this is a “Proof set”.

 The inner cover (second page) shows two pictures of Swami Vivekananda in his familiar orange robes.

 The obverse faces of the 2 coins showing their denominational values Rs.150/- and Rs.5/- as the coins appear on the coin album. The lower left hand corner of this page indicates Swami Vivekananda’s life period 1863-1902.

 The reverse faces of the 2 coins as they appear on the coin album. The lower right hand corner of this page indicates Swami Vivekananda’s life period 1863-1902.

Obverse of the Rs 150/- (Rupees One hundred and fifty) coin showing the Lion Capitol in the top centre with the words “Satyameva Jayate” (Truth always prevails) in Hindi/Devnagri inscribed below it, below which is the denominational value of the coin preceded by the rupee symbol. On the left periphery is the name of the country “Bharat” (in Hindi/Devnagri) and on the right periphery is mentioned “India” (in English).
   Reverse of the Rs 150/- (Rupees One hundred and fifty) coin showing a portrait of Swami Vivekananda in the centre wearing his customary (orange) robe.  On either side of his portrait are mentioned his life years “1863” and “1902”. On the left periphery of the coin is mentioned “Swami Vivekananda” in Hindi, below which is mentioned “150vin Jayanti” also in Hindi. On the right periphery starting from the top of the coin is mentioned “Swami Vivekananda” and starting from the bottom periphery is mentioned “150 Birth Anniversary” in English.

Obverse of the Rs 5/- (Rupees five) coin showing the Lion Capitol in the top centre with the words “Satyameva Jayate” (Truth always prevails) in Hindi/Devnagri inscribed below it, below which is the denominational value of the coin preceded by the rupee symbol. On the left periphery is the name of the country “Bharat” (in Hindi/Devnagri) and on the right periphery is mentioned “India” (in English).

 Reverse of the Rs 5/- (Rupees five) coin showing a portrait of Swami Vivekananda in the centre wearing his customary (orange) robe.  On either side of his portrait are mentioned his life years “1863” and “1902”. On the left periphery of the coin is mentioned “Swami Vivekananda” in Hindi, below which is mentioned “150vin Jayanti” also in Hindi. On the right periphery starting from the top of the coin is mentioned “Swami Vivekananda” and starting from the bottom periphery is mentioned “150 Birth Anniversary” in English.

The specifications of these two coins are as under:

a)   The Rupees 150 coin:

Shape: Circular;

Diameter/size: 44 mm;

No. of serrations: 200;

Weight: 35 gms.;

Metal composition: Quaternary Alloy (silver: 50%, copper: 40%, nickel: 5%, Zinc: 5%).

b)   The Rupees 5 coin:

Shape: Circular;

Diameter/size: 23 mm;

No. of serrations: 100;

Weight: 6 gms.;

Metal composition: Nickel Brass (copper: 75%, zinc: 20%, nickel:

5 %,).

Something is missing on the Commemorative coin album and the Rs.150/- Commemorative coin?

a)   Perhaps, the coin album could have contained a small/brief narration on Swami Vivekananda’s life and his work for information.

b)   Also, while in Hindi/Devnagri the period under commemoration has been mentioned correctly as “150vin Jayanti” it has been mentioned in English as “150 Birth Anniversary” instead of “150th” Birth Anniversary. The “th” seems to be missing which may have been due to space constraints on the coin.

 Posted on 22.11.13:

 Reverse of a circulating five rupee coin issued on the occasion, acquired by me in a Coin exhibition, by paying a premium, as five rupee commemorative coins are very hard to come by in Pune, or any five rupee coins for that matter.

Obverse of the above five rupee coin.

This coin exhibits the same features as the five rupee Proof coin and has the same specifications.

Stamps by India Post:

 India Post has brought out these beautiful stamps on various important aspects of Swami Vivekananda's life to commemorate his 150th Birth Anniversary. The above is an image of a miniature stamp sheet which, too,  I have acquired today. 
Post Script:

Swami Vivekananda's selected Speeches/lectures at The World Parliament of Religions, Chicago:

WELCOME ADDRESS - Chicago, Sept 11, 1893:

“Sisters and Brothers of America,

It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us. I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world; I thank you in the name of the mother of religions, and I thank you in the name of millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.

My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honour of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration. 

I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true. I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth. I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites, who came to Southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny. I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation. 

I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings: "As the different streams having their sources in different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee."

The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita: "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to me." 

Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now. But their time is come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honour of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.”

IN HIS ADDRESS dated 15 September 1893:

Swami Vivekananda referred to the so­ called differences between the various faiths, often exaggerated, comparing the narrow perceptions to the world ­views of the frogs in the well. Putting it in his own characteristically pictur­esque way, he observed: 

        “I am a Hindu. I am sitting in my own little well and thinking that the whole world is my little well. The Christian sits in his little well and thinks the whole world is his well. The Mohammedan sits in his little well and thinks that is the whole world. I have to thank you of America for the great attempt you are making to break down the barriers of this little world of ours, and hope that, in the future, the Lord will help you to accomplish your pur­pose.”

CONCLUDING ADDRESS - Chicago, Sept 27, 1893:

“The World's Parliament of Religions has become an accomplished fact, and the merciful Father has helped those who laboured to bring it into existence, and crowned with success their most unselfish labour.

My thanks to those noble souls whose large hearts and love of truth first dreamed this wonderful dream and then realized it. My thanks to the shower of liberal sentiments that has overflowed this platform. My thanks to this enlightened audience for their uniform kindness to me and for their appreciation of every thought that tends to smooth the friction of religions. A few jarring notes were heard from time to time in this harmony. My special thanks to them, for they have, by their striking contrast, made general harmony the sweeter.

Much has been said of the common ground of religious unity. I am not going just now to venture my own theory. But if anyone here hopes that this unity will come by the triumph of any one of the religions and the destruction of the others, to him I say, "Brother, yours is an impossible hope." Do I wish that the Christian would become Hindu? God forbid. Do I wish that the Hindu or Buddhist would become Christian? God forbid.

The seed is put in the ground, and earth and air and water are placed around it. Does the seed become the earth, or the air, or the water? No. It becomes a plant. It develops after the law of its own growth, assimilates the air, the earth, and the water, converts them into plant substance, and grows into a plant.
Similar is the case with religion. The Christian is not to become a Hindu or a Buddhist, nor a Hindu or a Buddhist to become a Christian. But each must assimilate the spirit of the others and yet preserve his individuality and grow according to his own law of growth.

If the Parliament of Religions has shown anything to the world, it is this: It has proved to the world that holiness, purity and charity are not the exclusive possessions of any church in the world, and that every system has produced men and women of the most exalted character. 

In the face of this evidence, if anybody dreams of the exclusive survival of his own religion and the destruction of the others, I pity him from the bottom of my heart, and point out to him that upon the banner of every religion will soon be written in spite of resistance: "Help and not fight," "Assimilation and not Destruction," "Harmony and Peace and not Dissension".

Posted on 14.03.2015:
A Commemorative Coin issued by the Hyderabad Mint booked in August 2014, has been received by me today from the Mint.

The cover of the album on which is shown an image Swami Vivekananda. On the top of the album is mentioned “Smarak Sikka” in Hindi and “Commemorative Coin” in English. Also mentioned on this cover is “Swami Vivekananda Ki 150vin Jayanti” (in Hindi) and “150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda” (in English).

On the second page of the album, inter alia, is a description of the life of Swami Vivekananda, which is as follows:
“Swami Vivekananda was born in Kolkata on 12th January 1863. The real name of swami Vivekananda was Narendranath Dutta. He was a saint, philosopher and one of the prominent leaders of the Indian religions and one of the most influential spiritual leaders of Vedanta philosophy and Yoga to the western World. He was the chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahansa and was the founder of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech beginning with “Sisters and Brothers of America” through which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the world’s Religions in Chicago in 1893. Swami Vivekananda declared that Indian culture was based on spiritualism while the basis of western culture was materialism. Swami Vivekananda’s birthday is celebrated as the National Youth Day. “
The coins commemorating the 150th Birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda were released on 12.01.2013.

Obverse of the Rupees Five Commemorative coin. In the Centre is the Lion Capitol of Emperor Asoka with the legend “Satyameva Jayate” in Hindi meaning “Truth always Prevails” which is the emblem of the Government of India. On the left periphery is mentioned “Bharat” (in Hindi) and on the right periphery is mentioned “India” (in English). The denomination of the coin “Rs.5” is at the extreme bottom.

Reverse of the Rupees Five Commemorative coin. In the centre is an image of Swami Vivekananda. On either side of his image are his life years “1863- 1902”. On the left periphery is mentioned “Swami Vivekananda*150vin Jayanti” in Hindi. On the right periphery is mentioned “Swami Vivekananda * 150 Birth Anniversary” in English.
Above this inscription and below Swami Vivekananda’s portrait is the “Star” mint mark of the Hyderabad Mint.
The specifications of this coin are:
Denomination: Rs. Five; Metal Composition: Alloy Ni-Brass; Copper: 75%, Zinc: 20%, Nickel: 5%; Dimensions: Diameter: 23 mm; Weight: 6.00 gms.


  1. Udayan Gupta has commented on 08.08.13:
    "Very informative article".

  2. Rupak Mukherjee has commented on 08.08.13:
    "Fantastically composed blog post!"

  3. Thanks, Rupak. Really appreciate.

  4. Jayashree Mukherjee has commented:
    "Very enlightening ,Rajeev" .