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Wednesday, 18 September 2013

116) Currency of the People’s Republic of China: Renminbi (People’s Currency): Yuan, Jiao and Fen:



116) Currency of the People’s Republic of China: Renminbi (People’s Currency): Yuan, Jiao and Fen:


All over the World, including in India, a phenomenal number of countries are using products which are “Made in China”. But our knowledge is mostly limited to just that. While India endeavours to build up its manufacturing/production infrastructure for maintaining a healthy growth rate, nevertheless, almost all the major/multi-national Companies in India are predominantly getting their products manufactured in China and selling them to us for our use in day to day consumption.


How many of us know that Renminbi is the official currency of the “People’s Republic of China” (PRC). Read on for more interesting information on the Chinese currency:


The Renminbi (RMB):


The Renminbi is the official currency of the PRC circulating in Mainland China. Hong Kong, Macau (both Special Administrative Regions of PRC – SARs) and Taiwan, however, have their own individual currencies, but, also accept the Renminbi as legal tender. 


The Renminbi also circulates in Pakistan, Mongolia and the Northern region of Thailand. In Cambodia it is treated as an official currency, while the States of Laos and Burma bordering China also use the Renminbi freely. Vietnam too whose official currency is the Dong because of its traditional affiliations with the People’s Republic of China, also lets the Renminbi be exchanged for the Dong.


The Renminbi by various names:


The Renminbi Yuan has been called by different names in the minority Regions of China. In Inner Mongolia and neighbouring places, it is called a “tugreg” and one tugreg is sub-divided into 100 “Monggu”. In the Republic of Mongolia, it is called a “Yuani” to differentiate it from the Mongolian “Togrog”. In Mongolian, the Renminbi is also called the “Aradin jogos” or “Arad – un Jogos”.


In Tibet and neighbouring areas, a Renminbi Yuan is called “gor”. One “gor” is subdivided into 10 “gorsur” or 100 “Gar”. The Renminbi in Tibetan is called “Mimangxogngu” or “Mimang shog dngul”.


Renminbi Banknotes:


These are mostly issued in the denominations of 1 Jiao to 100 Yuan (0.1 Yuan to 100 Yuan), while coins are mostly issued in the denominations of 1 fen to 1 Yuan (0.01 Yuan to 1 Yuan).


For several years, several types of currencies were in circulation in China before the establishment of the “People’s Republic of China” in 1949. 


All these currencies were legal tender or “Fabi”. The Yuan was the name given to the round silver and gold coins with the meaning of Yuan being “Round”.


As the Communist Party of China took control of several territories in China during the Chinese Civil War, it became imperative for the “People’s Bank of China” to start issuing a unified currency which was variously called the “New Currency”, “People’s Bank of China Banknotes”, “Peoples Notes” from 1948 onwards and finally called “People’s currency” or “Renminbi” from June 1949 onwards.


The Yuan, Jiao and Fen:


The Yuan is the primary unit of the Renminbi. A Yuan is also referred to as a “Kuai” (meaning a “lump or piece” – of silver initially). A Yuan also means a “round object” or “round coin”. A Yuan is further sub-divided into 10 “Jiao” (also called “Mao” meaning “a feather”), which is further subdivided into 10 “Fen” (also called “sin”, a version of “cent”). Thus each Yuan also consists of 100 “Fen”.


The historical development of currency/coinage in China:


As early as 210 BC, the first Emperor of China Qin Shi Huang had undertaken a similar project by abolishing several currencies in circulation and introducing a uniform copper coinage based on coins earlier used by Qin. These copper coins were round shaped with a square hole in the centre for allowing coins to be strung together for the purpose of creating higher denominations of currency coins. Copper continued to be used as the primary metal for minting of coins till the late nineteenth century, when the Yuan was introduced in the late nineteenth century. (Read more about ancient Chinese, Indian and Islamic coins, on the following Link on this Blog: Ancient Chinese, Indian and Islamic coins at the Shanghai Museum)


By 1889, the Yuan was placed at par with the Mexican Peso, a silver coin which was equivalent to the Spanish dollar. (One of the last silver coins of the Mexican Peso ordered by the Chinese Government in 1948 before the Communist Government took over in 1948 was a restrike of the 1898 silver Mexican Peso minted in Mexico. I have got one of these silver pesos in my collection. Read more about this coin at the following Link on this Blog:
(http://exclusivecoins.blogspot.in/2011/05/10-travels-of-mexican-silver-peso-1898.html)


By 1890, the “Imperial Bank of China” and the “Hu Pu Bank” later renamed as the “Ta-Ching Government Bank” among several other Banks were issuing Banknotes denominated in Jiao and Yuans. The earliest issues were of silver coins minted at the Guangdong/Kwangtung Mint. Later, other regional mints helped out with the minting of silver coins. Banknotes were also being issued in Yuan denominations by several Banks including by the “Imperial Bank of China”.


By 1903, brass, copper and silver coins were being issued.


From 1917 to the 1920s, several provincial coins/Banknotes were introduced/circulated by the Provinces designated as the “Local Currency” side by side with the “National Currency”, which continued to be in circulation till the unification of Chinese Currency in 1948.


During 1930s several new currencies were brought into circulation by the invading Japanese forces.


By 1935, the Kuomintang Government brought in currency reforms and permitted only four Banks to issue currency – the “Bank of China”, “Central Bank of China”, “Bank of Communications” and the “Farmer’s Bank of China”.


In 1936, a new Series of base metal coins were introduced following the reforms.


Between 1930 and 1948, Banknotes issued by the Central Bank of China were denominated in customs gold units.


After the Second World War ended in 1945, the gold Yuan was introduced in 1948 by the Nationalist Government.


In 1949, the last currency introduced by the Nationalist government was the silver Yuan which circulated for a few months before the Communist Government took over control of the “People’s Republic of China”.


Printing and Minting of Banknotes and Coins:


The “China Banknote Printing and Minting (CBPMC)”, has its Headquarters in Beijing and several branches across Mainland China viz. In Chengdu, Nanchang, Shanghai, Shijiazhuang, Xian etc. Mints are located in Nanjing, Shanghai and Shenyang while Banknotes are printed in Baoding and Kunshan. In addition, the “People’s Bank of China” has its own research facilities to develop new and foolproof techniques for preventing counterfeiting.


The First Series of the Renminbi (introduced on 01.12.1948 – 01.04.1955/10.05.1955):


The First Series of the Renminbi was introduced by the People’s Bank of China during the Chinese Civil War in December 1948, almost a year before the People’s Republic of China came into existence.

Introduction of this currency was necessitated for the purpose of having a uniform currency in the various communist held territories as well as to replace the Nationalist Government currency.


The various denominations introduced were: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 Yuan (all introduced in 1948) and 200, 500, 1000, 5000, 10000 and 50000 Yuan (all introduced in 1949). The name Renminbi was first used in June 1949, and all the Banknotes of this Series had the words “People’s Bank of China” and “Republic of China printed on them.


In all the currency included 62 designs and is referred to as the “Old Currency”. These Banknotes were withdrawn from circulation between 01.04.1955 to 10.05.1955, when this Series was replaced by the Second Series of Renminbi.


No coins were issued under this Series.


The Second Series of the Renminbi – 1953 Series (introduced on 01.03.1955): 


The Second series of the Renminbi was introduced on 01.03.1955 at a replacement value of 10000 Yuan (of the I Series) to I Yuan (of the II Series). In this Series the decimal points of the first Series moved four places to the left to signify/denote the revaluation.


This Series moved the decimal points of the first Series four places to the left to signify the revaluation. Apart from the country of issue “People’s Republic of China”, the denomination was mentioned in Mongolian, Tibetan and Uyghur languages on the back of these Banknotes. (The Zhuang language was not invented as yet hence was not included in the Second Series. It has since appeared on the back of Renminbi Notes). The denominations of the Banknotes are printed in Chinese and Chinese and Arabic numerals.


The Second Series Banknotes (1953 Series) included “Fen” – 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 Yuan or 1, 2 and 5 “fen” coins, “Jiao” –  0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 Yuan or 1, 2 and 5 “Jiao” coins and “Yuan” – 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10. However, with inflationary pressures, the “Fen” and “Jiao” almost became redundant.


Two of the denominations underwent a second printing known as the 1956 Series – 1 and 5 Yuan were included under this Printing.


The Soviet Union assisted with the printing of the 3, 5 and 10 Yuan denomination Notes but with the breaking down of relations between the People’s Republic of China and the USSR, these banknotes were taken out of circulation on 15.04.1964 and completely withdrawn by 15.05.1964.


The dates of withdrawal of various denominations under this Series are:


1 and 2 Yuan Banknotes were withdrawn on 01.01.1999.


0.01, 0.02 and 0.05 denomination Banknotes ceased to be legal tender on 01.07.2003 and fully recalled by 01.04.2007.


Coins in the denominations of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05 Yuan or 1, 2 and 5 “Fen” coins were also introduced in the Second Series in 1955, which are still treated as legal tender. 


The Third Series of the Renminbi (15.04.1962):


The Third series of the Renminbi was introduced on 15.04.1962, particularly after the relations between the People’s Republic of China and USSR were deteriorating to the point of completely breaking down.


Denominations included in this Series were:

0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 Yuan


The dates of introduction and withdrawal of various denominations in this Series were:

0.1       Yuan: (20.04.1962–20.11.1971), then again, (31.10.1967–15.12.1967), and later from (15.12.1967-04.02.1992).

0.2       Yuan: (15.04.1964-04.02.1992).

0.5    Yuan: (05.01.1974 – 01.03.1991).

1   & 5    Yuan: (20.10.1969 – 04.02.1992).

2       Yuan: (15.04.1964 – 01.03.1996).

10     Yuan:  (10.01.1966 – 01.03.1996).


Thus, the various denominations of the Third series of Renminbi were phased out over a period of about five years from March 1991 to March 1996.


The last Banknotes were finally taken out of circulation be 01.07.2000.


Fourth Series of the Renminbi (introduced between 1987 and 1997):


The Fourth Series of the Renminbi was introduced between 1987 and 1997. Most of these Banknotes which are in circulation are dated 1980, 1990 and 1996.


Under the 1980 Banknote issues (referred to as the First Edition of this Series), the following denominations were printed:


0.1       Yuan – issue date: 22.09.1988.

0.2       Yuan – issue date: 10.05.1988.

0.5 & 50 Yuan – issue date: 27.04.1987.

1 , 2 & 100 Yuan – issue date: 10.05.1988.

5 & 10    Yuan – issue date: 22.09.1988.     



The Front of a 1 “Jiao” Banknote showing “Gaoshan” and “Manchu” men. facing right. The denomination of the Banknote “1” is mentioned in numerals as well as Chinese.


The above image is that of the Back of a 1 “Jiao” Banknote issued in 1980 under the First Edition of the Fourth Series. On the top of the Banknote is mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang”, the numeral “1” appears on the left and right of the Banknote, and mentioning the denomination of the Note as “YI JIAO”. In the centre is the Emblem of the People’s Republic of China, below which is mentioned the year of printing of the Banknote – “1980”. The denomination of the Banknote is mentioned in 4 languages at the extreme bottom. This Banknote was released for circulation in 1988.



The Front of a 2 “Jiao” Banknote showing “Buyei” and “Korean” girls facing right. The denomination of the Banknote “2” is mentioned in numerals as well as Chinese.




The above image is that of the Back of a 2 “Jiao” Banknote issued in 1980 under the First Edition of the Fourth Series. On the top of the Banknote is mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang”, the numeral “2” appears on the left and right of the Banknote, and mentioning the denomination of the Note as “ER JIAO”. In the centre is the Emblem of the People’s Republic of China, below which is mentioned the year of printing of the Banknote – “1980”. The denomination of the Banknote is mentioned in 4 languages at the extreme bottom. This Banknote was released for circulation in 1988.


Under the 1990 Banknote issues (referred to as the Second Edition of this Series), the following denominations were printed:

1           Yuan – issue date: 01.03.1995.

2           Yuan – issue date: 10.04.1996.

50 & 100   Yuan – issue date: 20.08.1992.

Under the 1996 Banknote issues (referred to as the Third Edition of this Series)

1      Yuan – issue date: 01.04.1997.


The Front of the 1 Jiao Banknote in this Series depicts “Gaoshan” and “Manchu” men.


The Front of the 2 Jiao Banknote in this Series depicts “Buyei” and “Korean” girls.


The Front of the 5 Jiao Banknote in this Series depicts “Miao” and Zhuang” girls in red.


The Front of the 1 Yuan Banknote depicts “Dong” and “Yao” girls in red.


The Front of the 2 Yuan Banknote depicts “Uyghur” and “Yi (Nuosa)” girls in green.


The Front of the 5 Yuan Banknote depicts a “Tibetan” girl and a “Hui” elder.


The Front of the 10 Yuan Banknote depicts “Han” and “Mongol” Men.


The Front of the 50 Yuan Banknote depicts an “intellectual”, a “farmer” and an “industrial worker” as well as representative “Chinese Communist imagery”. 


The Front of the 100 Yuan Banknote depicts four important contributors to the creation of the People’s Republic of China, viz. “Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi and Zhu De”.


The Back of all Banknotes in this Series have Geographical features.


These Banknotes are all circulating as legal tender, including the 0.2 and 2 Yuan Banknotes which have been withdrawn from circulation, but not completely recalled.


Coins: 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Yuan were minted between 1991 and 1999. On the obverse, all these coins have the Emblem of the People’s Republic of China, the name of the country in Chinese and “pinyin”. The reverse of all coins carries the image of a flower.


Fifth Series of the Renminbi (introduced from 1999 onwards):


The Fifth Series of the Renminbi introduced on various dates commencing from 1999 onwards. This Series which is presently in circulation includes the following denominations of Banknotes: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 Yuan Banknotes was printed in two editions1999 (First edition) and 2005 (Second Edition) the last adding several security strengthening features in the higher denomination Banknotes starting from 5 Yuan onwards.


The depiction of two ethnic Chinese people on the Front of the Fourth Series Banknotes were now replaced by the portrait of Mao Zedong.


The 1999 Edition of Banknotes:


(The images of these Banknotes are similar to the 2005 Edition of Banknotes. As such, I have included the 2005 issues as representative images in this section. The additional security features included in the 2005 Edition are discussed after this section):


The 1 Yuan Banknote on the Front depicts “Mao Zedong” and an “orchid”. The size of the Banknote is 130 mm x 63 mm and its colour is yellow green. It also has an Orchid as its watermark. These Banknotes were released for circulation on 30.07.2004.

 



The Front of a one Yuan Banknote printed in 1999, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “1” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “1” is represented an Orchid flower. Below the Serial number on the left bottom is shown a lemniscate or the symbol of infinity.





 Three Pools mirroring the Moon Island on West Lake.
 



The 1 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “3 pools reflecting the moon at West Lake”. On top of this face are mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang” and the value of the Banknote in four languages. The numeral “1” represents the denominational value of the Banknote along with the word “Yuan”. The year of printing is mentioned as “1999”. 

(West Lake, also known as “Wulin Water” in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province in Eastern China, is a fresh-water lake, having three causeways as well as several temples, pagodas, gardens and artificial islands.It has inspired painters, poets and writers, as well as it has influenced Chinese classical garden designs in China and Japan over the centuries. It has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011).


The 5 Yuan Banknote on the Front depicts “Mao Zedong” and a “Narcissus”. The size of the Banknote is 135 mm x 63 mm and its colour is purple.  It also has a Narcissus as its watermark. Banknotes under the 1999 Edition were released for circulation on 18.11.2002.




The Front of a Five Yuan Banknote printed in 2005, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “5” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “5” is represented a Narcissus flower.



The 5 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “Mount Tai”.


Immortal bridge at Mount Tai:


South Gate to Heaven at Mount Tai:


The 5 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “Mount Tai features”. On top of this face are mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang” and the value of the Banknote in four languages. The numeral “5” represents the denominational value of the Banknote along with the word “Yuan”. The year of printing is mentioned as “2005”.


(Mount Tai located north of the city of Taian, in Western Shandong province, China, has great historical and cultural significance. Mount Tai is one of the “Five Great Mountains” and is associated with sunrise, birth and renewal. It is regarded as the most important of the five mountains. Its tallest peak is called the “Emperor Jade Peak” which is about 1550 metres tall. Mount Tai has been a place of worship for over 3000 years. “Emperor Lord” is the supreme God of Mount Tai. Other deities worshipped here are: “Bixia Yuanjun” (Heavenly Jade Maiden), “Yanguang Nainai” (Goddess of Eyesight), “Songzi Niangniang” (Goddess of Fertility), and “Shi Gandang” (Spirit which protects worshippers from evil). The Temple of the God of Mount Tai is known as the “Dai Temple”. Also, found on the mountain are the “Azure Clouds Temple”, a “Confucius Temple”, the “Puzhao Temple”, the “Wordless Stela”,  “Abandoning Oneself Cliff”,  etc. In all there are 22 temples, almost a 100 ruins, 819 stone tablets and over 1000 cliff-side and stone inscriptions). 


The 10 Yuan Banknote on the Front depicts “Mao Zedong” and a “Rose”. The size of the Banknote is 140 mm x 70 mm and its colour is blue.  It also has a Rose as its watermark. These Banknotes were released for circulation on 01.09.2001.





The Front of a Ten Yuan Banknote printed in 2005, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “10” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “10” is represented a Rose flower.



The above is an image of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River and below is an image showing the Yangtze at dusk.




The 10 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “Three Gorges of the Yangtze River”.

 


The 10 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “a gorge in the Yangtze River”. On top of this face are mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang” and the value of the Banknote in four languages. The numeral “10” represents the denominational value of the Banknote along with the word “Yuan”. The year of printing is mentioned as “2005”.


(The “Yangtze River” or “Chang Jiang” is Asia’s longest river and the third longest in the World, flowing for over 6420 km. or about 3990 miles, from the glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibei Plateau in Qinghai across Southwest, Central and Eastern China to the East China Sea in Shanghai. For several centuries, the river water has provided life sustenance for almost one-third of China’s population. The “Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the World). 


The 20 Yuan Banknote on the Front depicts “Mao Zedong” and a “Lotus”. The size of the Banknote is 145 mm x 70 mm and its colour is brown.  It also has a Lotus as its watermark. These Banknotes were released for circulation on 16.10.2001.




The Front of a Twenty Yuan Banknote printed in 2005, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “20” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “20” is represented a Lotus flower.





 Guilin Mountains along the Li River


Guilin City along the Li River

The 20 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “Scenery of Guilin”.



The 20 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “scenery of Guilin along the Li River”. On top of this face are mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang” and the value of the Banknote in four languages. The numeral “20” represents the denominational value of the Banknote along with the word “Yuan”. The year of printing is mentioned as “2005”.


(“Guilin” is a prefecture level city in the North-East of the “Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region” of the People’s Republic of China situated on the West Bank of the Li River, bordering Hunan on the North. Guilin means “Forest of Sweet Osmanthus”, because of the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees in the city. The city has also been famous for its unique scenery of “Karst” topography and is one of the popular tourist destinations. The “Guilin Mountains” and surrounding Area are on the other hand, one of the most inspirational places for poets and artists around the World. The mountains are made of limestone and have incredible rock formations along the Li River. The Seven Star Park, which covers an area of over 100 hectares, features rivers, caves, the “Seven Star Peaks”, “Morning of the Camel Hill”, “Crescent Rainbow Shadow”, Putuo Stone Forest, Flower Bridge, Longyin Cave and Stone, Crescent Stone, Flower bridge etc). 


The 50 Yuan Banknote on the Front depicts “Mao Zedong” and a “Chrysanthemum”. The size of the Banknote is 150 mm x 70 mm and its colour is green.  It also has Mao Zedong in its watermark. These Banknotes were released for circulation on 01.09.2001.




The Front of a 50 Yuan Banknote printed in 2005, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “50” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “50” is represented a “Chrysanthemum flower”


The 50 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows the “Potala Palace”.


                         An image of the Potala Palace in Lhasa.
                                 Potala Palace by night.




 The 50 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “the Potala Palace in Lhasa”. On top of this face are mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang” and the value of the Banknote in four languages. The numeral “50” represents the denominational value of the Banknote along with the word “Yuan”. The year of printing is mentioned as “2005”.


(The Potala Palace or “Wylie” in Tibetan, located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China is named after Mount Potalaka, the mythical abode of “Chenresig” or “Avalokiteswara”. The Potala Palace was the Chief Residence of the Dalai Lama till the time the 14th Dalai Lama shifted to Dharamshala, India (Read more about the Tibetan religious places and “Norbu Lingka” – Centre of Tibetan Arts/Culture – in Dharamshala and the State of Himachal Pradesh where it is situated on the following link on our Travel blog: A Road trip to Himachal - Manali, Dharmshala, Simla etc.)

Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama commenced the construction of the Potala Palace in 1645. The external structure was built by 1648 and the interiors/furnishings over a period of 45 years. 

The Palace has 13 stories of buildings containing over 1000 rooms, 10000 shrines and 200000 statues on top of the “Marpo Ri” or the “Red Hill”. Tradition has it that the 3 main hills of Lhasa  represent the “Three Protectors of Tibet” – “Chokpo Ri” South of the Potala is the “Soul – Mountain” of “Vajrapani”, “Pongwa Ri” or “Manjushree” and “Marpo Ri” the Hill on which the Potala Palace stands).


The 100 Yuan Banknote on the Front depicts “Mao Zedong” and a “Prunus Mume”. The size of the Banknote is 155 mm x 77 mm and its colour is red.  It also has Mao Zedong in its watermark. These Banknotes were released for circulation on 01.10.1999.
The Front of a 100 Yuan Banknote printed in 2005, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “100” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “100” is represented a “Prunus Mume flower”.



The 100 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows the “Great Hall of the People”.

The Great Hall of the people at Night:


 Auditorium of the Great Hall:




The 100 Yuan Banknote on the Back shows “the Great Hall of the People”. On top of this face are mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang” and the value of the Banknote in four languages. The numeral “50” represents the denominational value of the Banknote along with the word “Yuan”. The year of printing is mentioned as “2005”.


(The Great Hall of the People is located in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, People’s Republic of China and functions as the meeting place of the “National People’s Congress” which is the Chinese Parliament. It is also used for legislative and ceremonial activities by the Communist Party of China. It was opened in 1959 and is one of the “Ten Great Constructions” completed on the 10th Anniversary of the People’s Republic of China).


The 2005 Edition of Banknotes:


The additional Security features included in the 2005 Edition included:


-      The “EURion Constellation” to avoid computer assisted counterfeiting. A salient example of this Security feature is that photocopiers give out a message that they are unable to copy/scan the Banknote image. 
      The currency number printed at the bottom of the Back of the Banknote has added a word “YUAN” which indicates the “pinyin” of the unit in Chinese language.

-      There is more intaglio (raised) ink printing on the Front of the Banknote towards the right hand side.

-      Fiber threads have been removed from the Banknotes.

-      Watermarks and ink used fluorescence under U.V.light.

-      All but the 1 Yuan Banknote have a metallic strip.

-      The 50 and 100 Yuan Banknotes have serial numbers which change colour when viewed from different angles.
  The Front of a 100 Yuan Banknote printed in 2015 with enhanced Security Features.
 The Back of the above 100 Yuan Banknote printed in 2015 with enhanced Security Features.



Coins of the 1999 (First Edition):


The coins of the 1999 (First Edition) replaced all the earlier coins issued in the Second and Third Series, although coins issued under both the earlier Series are still being accepted by Users as legal tender.


In this Series, the emblem/title of the “People’s Republic of China” (as in the previous Series) was replaced by the title of the “People’s Bank of China”.


The three denominations continued in this Series were as under:


On the obverse of the 0.1 Yuan or 1 “Jiao” coin, the Bank name/title is mentioned on the upper periphery. This coin was first issued on 16.10.2000, although it was first minted in 1999.


The specifications of this coin are:

Size: 19.00 mm; Edge: Plain; Metal Composition: Aluminium alloy or “Duralumin”.


On the reverse of the 0.1 Yuan or 1 “Jiao” coin, in the centre is an image of an Orchid flower.


On the obverse of the 0.5 Yuan or 5 “Jiao” coin, the Bank name/title is mentioned on the upper periphery. This coin was first issued on 18.11.2002, although it was first minted in 2002.


The specifications of this coin are:


Size: 20.50 mm; Edge: Reeded; Metal Composition: Copper alloy plated steel.


On the reverse of the 0.5 Yuan or 5 “Jiao” coin, in the centre is an image of a Lotus flower.




On the obverse of the 1 Yuan coin, the Bank name/title is mentioned on the upper periphery, with the numeral “1” representing the denominational value of the coin in the centre.

On the left side of the numeral are mentioned “Yi Yuan” and the year of issue 2001. This coin was first issued on 16.10.2000.

The specifications of this coin are:

Size: 25.00 mm; Edge: RMB repeated three times; Metal Composition: Nickel plated steel.


 On the reverse of the 1.0 Yuan coin, in the centre is an image of a Chrysanthemum flower. On the upper periphery is mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang”. 
 

Coins introduced in the 2005 Edition were also, in the denomination of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 Yuan.

The 2005 edition 0.1 Yuan coins are minted in stainless steel, in place of “duralumin” which was an “aluminium alloy” as hitherto before.


Commemorative Banknotes:


Several Commemorative Banknotes have been issued by the People’s Bank of China, some of the prominent ones being the 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1999 (50 Yuan Banknote), a polymer Note on the new millennium in 2000 (100 Yuan), the 2008 Beijing Olympics (10 Yuan Banknote) etc.


(The Mao Zedong Series of Banknotes and the 1 Yuan coin are from the collection of Jayant Biswas, while the 1 and 2 Jiao Banknotes are from Ajit George's collection.)

Posted on 13.01.16:  


 The Front of a 5 “Jiao” Banknote showing “Miao” and “Zuang” women facing right. The denomination of the Banknote “5” is mentioned in numerals as well as Chinese. 
 The above image is that of the Back of a 5 “Jiao” Banknote issued in 1980 under the First Edition of the Fourth Series. On the top of the Banknote is mentioned “Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang”, the numeral “1” appears on the left and right of the Banknote, and mentioning the denomination of the Note as “Wu JIAO”. 

In the centre is the Emblem of the People’s Republic of China, below which is mentioned the year of printing of the Banknote – “1980”. The denomination of the Banknote is mentioned in 4 languages at the extreme bottom. This Banknote was released for circulation in 1987.

The following are images of Banknotes belonging to the 2005 Series:


The Front of a Five Yuan Banknote printed in 2005 showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China on the top left, the numeral “5” representing the denomination of this Banknote, the value in Chinese and a portrait of Mao Zedong with his life years – 1893 to 1976. Below the numeral “5” is represented a Narcissus flower.
 The Back of the Five Yuan Banknote printed in 2005 (details given above)

     The Front of a Ten Yuan Banknote printed in 2005

 The Back of a Ten Yuan Banknote printed in 2005 (details given above)


 The Front of a Twenty Yuan Banknote printed in 2005
 The Back of a Ten Yuan Banknote printed in 2005 (details given above)
The Front of a Hundred Yuan Banknote printed in 2005
 The Back of the Hundred Yuan Banknote printed in 2005 (details given above)

Some coins which are presently in circulation:
  An image of the Reverse of a 1 Fen coin presently in circulation. This coin has been issued in 1988.
 An image of the Obverse of the above 1 Fen coin presently in circulation, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China in the Centre.
 An image of the Obverse of a 5 Jiao coin (0.5 Yuan)presently in circulation. This coin has been issued in 2014.
 An image of the Reverse of a 5 Jiao coin (0.1 Yuan)presently in circulation. This coin depicts the image of a Lotus Flower.
 An image of the Obverse of a 1 Jiao coin (0.1 Yuan)presently in circulation. This coin has been issued in 2013.
 An image of the Reverse of a 1 Jiao coin (0.1 Yuan)presently in circulation. This coin shows an image of an Orchid flower.
 An image of the Reverse of a 1 Fen coin presently in circulation. This coin has been issued in 2013.
An image of the Obverse of the above 1 Fen coin presently in circulation, showing the emblem of the People’s Republic of China in the Centre.




(The images of the above Banknotes and coins have been contributed by Shri R.N. Lalingkar. The Banknotes have been brought for his collection by his daughter Aparna, who was visiting the People's Republic of China recently)
(Article researched/written and images of  coins/Banknotes scanned and uploaded by Rajeev Prasad)



4 comments:

  1. Ramchandra Lalingkar has commonted on 18.09.2013:
    "Very interesting and exhaustive information with photographs about Chinese history, 'Mao' and the places of interest in China. Thanks a lot !

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you so much for your encouraging comment.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Dhruv Kumar Seth has commented on 18.09.2013:
    "apne work ko justify karne ke liye kitna home work karte hai sir".

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thank you. It is just a hobby. The best part is that there are no time pressures or deadlines.

    ReplyDelete