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Monday, 2 December 2013

125) Currency/Coins of the South Pacific Island country of Fiji:

125) Currency/Coins of the South Pacific Island country of Fiji:

About Fiji:

Fiji is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1100 nautical miles north-east of New Zealand’s North Island.  It comprises an archipelago of over 332 islands, (of which 110 are permanently inhabited) and more than 500 islets. 

The two major islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu which account for about 90% of Fiji’s population of about 300000.  Suva, the capital of Fiji is located in Viti Levu.

Most of the Fijian islands formed through volcanic activity which started some 150 million years ago. The Dutch through their explorer Abel Tasman (in 1643) and the British (in 1874) settled in/occupied Fiji during the 17th to  20th centuries and Fiji became independent from being a British colony only in 1970 after about a century of British occupation.

Almost 40% of Fiji’s population consisted of persons of Indian origin or “Indo-Fijians”, brought in as contract labourers with the British occupation, who have had a major say in matters of governance in the past. The majority of the indigenous Fijians are Melanesians of Polynesian descent.

However, two coups in 1987, led to a major Indo-Fijian emigration leading to their numbers being reduced to vastly lesser numbers than indigenous Fijians. After another coup around 2000 and a couple of mutinies by soldiers, in September 2001, democracy was restored in Fiji to be dislodged again through a coup in 2006 which was declared illegal by the Fijian Courts in 2009.

An internal emergency was imposed by the ruling clique in 2009, the Constitution of Fiji was suspended and Press censorship was imposed et al (Similar to the Emergency imposed in India in the 1970s when Indira Gandhi’s election was voided by a competent Court!!).

For not having a democratically elected Government, Fiji was suspended in 2009 from the “Pacific Islands Forum”, as well as from the “Commonwealth of Nations”.

A return to democracy and restoration of the constitution is proposed in 2014.

Having an abundance of forest, mineral and fish resources, Fiji has a good tourism industry and sugar exports (sugarcane symbols also figure on Fiji’s emblem among others).

Historical Development of Fijian Currency:

From 1867 to 1873, the currency of Fiji was the Fijian dollar sub-divided into 100 cents.

Between 1873 and 1969, the Pound was the currency of Fiji. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, with 1 shilling being further equal to 12 pence.

Early Fijian Coinage:
In 1934, Fiji started minting its own coins, as there was a break in the parity with the pound sterling during the Great Depression of the 1930s and several currencies had been devalued. At this point, 1.11 Fijian Pound was equal to one pound sterling. Coins in the denomination of ½, 1 and 6 pence and 1 shilling and two shillings (florin) were circulated.

Again, in 1942 and 1943, the San Francisco Mint in the USA minted coins in the denomination of 1/2, and 1 penny (all in Brass), and 6 pence, shilling and florin coins (all in 90% silver).

In 1947, a dodecagonal 3 pence (nickel-brass) coin was introduced.

Between 1953 and 1957, the silver composition was replaced with cupro-nickel coins.

In 1969, coins were introduced in the denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 cents. Later 50 cent coins were introduced in 1975.

Early Fijian Banknotes:

In 1871, one pound Banknotes were issued at Levuka on the Island of Ovalau.

In 1873, Banknotes were issued in denominations of five and ten shillings and one and two pounds by the Fiji Banking and Commercial Company.

In 1876, the Bank of New Zealand issued Banknotes in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 20 pounds.

In 1901, the Bank of New South Wales issued 1 pound Banknotes.

In 1917, during World War I, as a wartime emergency measure, 1 pound Banknotes were introduced.

In 1920, 5 and 10 shillings Banknotes were issued.

In 1925, 10 pound Banknotes were issued and 5 pound Banknotes in 1926.

In 1934, 20 pound Banknotes were issued.

In 1939, during World War II, one penny, and one and two shillings Banknotes were issued.

In 1967, when the Pound Sterling was devalued the Fijian Pound stood at 104.10 Fijian pounds to 100 pound sterling. This further devaluation, led to the Fijian Pound moving away further from the Pound sterling and closer to the Australian and New Zealand currencies.

On 15.01.1969, the Fijian Pound was replaced by the Fijian dollar at an exchange rate of 1 Fijian Pound to 2 Fijian dollars. The new Fijian dollar was nearly equal to the new dollars in Australia and New Zealand. The wheel had thus, turned a full circle after about 96 years of British Rule. 
An interesting feature of Fijian Banknotes and coinage was that although Fiji was declared a Republic from 1987, it continued to feature the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II on one Face of the Banknotes/coins until its present Series in circulation since April 2013.
Banknote issues:
Banknotes of the First dollar:
Historically, in 1867, the Banknotes of the First dollar were issued with the Government Treasury issuing 1 dollar Banknotes.

Later, between 1871 and 1873, $10, $25 and $50 were circulated. Also, during this period, King Cakobau issued Banknotes in the denominations of 12 ½, 25, 50, and 100 cents as well as $5 Banknotes.  Levuka on Ovalau Island issued $1 and $5 Banknotes during this period.

The Intervening currency:
From 1871 to 1969, Banknotes of the British pound were the currency of Fiji as detailed elsewhere above.

Banknotes of the Second dollar:
From 15.01.1969, Banknotesin the denominations of 50 cents and $1, $2, $10 and $20 were issued.

Later, in 1970, $5 Banknote denominations were circulated.

In 1974, the Central Monetary Authority of Fiji issued the same denominations as the ones issued in 1969, except that, the 50 cents Banknote was replaced by a coin.

In 1986, the supervision of Banknote issues was taken over by the Reserve Bank of Fiji for the newly declared Republic of Fiji since 1987.

In 1995, the $1 Banknote was replaced by a coin.

In 1996, $50 Banknote was circulated.

In 2007, $100 denominated Banknote was issued.

Banknotes of the 2007 Series (issued on 10.04.2007):

The Front of all the Banknotes of this Series depicts the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, the Coat of Arms or Emblem of Fiji, and the “domodomo” (or canoe masthead).

In addition to the above, the images seen on various denominations of Banknotes are:

The Front of the $2 Banknote also shows a mohar or “sovereign locket” (In India, a “mohar” means a “seal” or a “stamp”. Gold coins issued were also called mohars). The colour of this Banknote is green and its size is 131 mm x67 mm. The watermark on this Banknote has a Fijian head and electrotype 2.
 The Back of the $2 Banknote shows the National Stadium in Suva, the Korobas Mountains and children.
 (National Stadium in Suva: is also known as ANZ stadium and is used mostly for rugby leagues, rugby union and football matches).

Korobas Mountain: “Korobasabasaga” is a mountain located in Central Fiji (Oceania). It is also known by various names: “Koro Mbasa-mbasanga” or “Korombasambasanga”).
Another variation of a  $2 Banknote:
In addition to the usual features, this Banknote shows a "Kaka" an endangered species of parrot found in Fiji.

The Back of this $2 Banknote shows ethnic Fijians and this Banknote promotes tourism.

The Front of the $5 Banknote also shows “Katoni Masima”. The colour of this Banknote is brown and its size is 136 mm x 67 mm. The watermark on this Banknote has a Fijian head and electrotype 5.

The Back of the $5 Banknote shows Mount Valili, Fiji Crested Iguana, Balaka palm and Masiratu flower.

(Fiji Crested Iguana: or “Brachylophus vitiensis” is a critically endangered species of iguana native to some of the north-western islands of the Fijian archipelago where it is found in dry forest. The majority of this species in Fiji is found on the island of Yadua Taba, The Island is a National Trust of Fiji reserve and is thus the only legally protected population of the Fiji Crested Iguana.
There are some other Fijian islands where the Fiji Crested Iguana has been found: Deviulau, Macuata, Mouriki, Monu, Malolo Levu, Waya and Qalito. The Fijian name for iguana is “vokai” and sometimes it is referred to as “saumuri”. Two tribes even regard the iguana as their totem.

Balaka Palm: Balaka is a genus of seven species in the palm family (“Arecaceae” or “Palmae”). Five of these are found in Fiji and two in Samoa.

Masiratu flower: or “Degeneria vitiensis” is a species belonging to “Degeneriaceae” which is a family of flowering plants).
 The Front of the $10 Banknote shows “I Buburau ni Bete(duck dish). The colour of this Banknote is purple and its size is 141 mm x 67 mm. The watermark on this Banknote has a Fijian head and electrotype 10.
 The Back of the $10 Banknote shows Joske’s Thumb and Grand Pacific Hotel.

(Joske’s Thumb: is a volcanic plug that stands out in the skyline, being located about 15 kilometres west of Suva, Fiji. The peak is named after Paul Joske, one of Suva’s pioneer settlers who came with the Australia based Polynesia Company in 1870. The earlier name for this mountain was “Rama” and it was also called the “Devil’s Thumb”.
As a matter of interest, Sir Edmund Hillary, the mountaineer, who scaled Mount Everest first, was unsuccessful in scaling Joske’s Thumb twice.

 Grand Pacific Hotel: This Hotel is located on the main sea front on Victoria Parade in Suva, Fiji. It was built by the Union Steamship Company in 1914 to serve the needs of passengers on its transpacific routes. The rooms in the Hotel were made like first-class staterooms, complete with saltwater bathrooms and plumbing fixtures identical to those of an ocean liner. All the rooms are on the second floor and guests step out onto a verandah overlooking the harbour and walk around the building as if they are walking on the deck).

The Front of the $20 Banknote also shows an image of a Foa(Rotuman coconut scraper). The colour of this Banknote is blue and its size is 146 mm x 67 mm. The watermark on this Banknote has a Fijian head and electrotype 20.

The Back of the $20 Banknote shows Mount Ului-nabukelevu, fish processing, lumber cutting, mining and a train.

(Mount Ului-nabukelevu: Nabukelevu is a complex of lava domes on Kadavu Island. The highest point of Nabukelevu is about 2650 feet and it is a dormant volcano).
 The Front of the $50 Banknote also shows Wasekaseka or Whale-tooth necklace. The colour of this Banknote is red and its size is 151 mm x 67 mm. The watermark on this Banknote has a Fijian head and electrotype 50.
The Back of the $50 Banknote shows a ceremonial presentation of Tabua (TubeTube) and Yaqona Vakaturaga.

(Tabua: A “Tabua” is a polished tooth of a sperm whale that is considered to be an important cultural item in Fijian society. These were given as gifts for atonement or esteem (called “sevusevu”) and were important during negotiations between rival chiefs. Men who had passed away were buried with their tabua along with war clubs etc. Tabuas are normally not sold but traded regularly as gifts in weddings, important functions etc.

Yaqona Vaka-turaga: “Yaqona” is a kind of pepper plant whose root and stem are washed and dried together, then pounded into a powder to be mixed with water and filtered through a silk cloth. Yaqona is a central and ancient part of Fijian ceremony. Yaqona is consumed seated on a rectangular “Pandanus” mat.
At one end is a “Tanoa” (wooden or clay mixing bowl). The front area has “Magimagi” (coconut fibre rope) and cowry shells attached to the “Magimagi”.
The ceremony begins with one person saying “Qai vakarau lose Saka Na Yaqona vaka Turaga” (“I will respectfully mix the Yaqona for the Chieftain”). This is followed by “Qai darama saka tu na Yaqona Vakaturaga” (“With respect the Chief’s Yaqona is ready to drink”).
 The others join in drinking after the Chief. After several other rounds of ceremonial gestures/drinking the Yaqona , the drinking ceremony ends with “Qai maca saka tu na Yaqona Vakaturaga” (“respectfully to you all, the Chief’s yaqona is finished”).

 The Front of the $100 Banknote also shows a Buli Kala (Golden Cowrie). The colour of this Banknote is yellow and its size is 156 mm x 67 mm. The watermark on this Banknote has a Fijian head and electrotype 100.

The Back of the $100 Banknote shows a Map of Fiji and Tourism.

New Series of Banknotes/coins:

The new Banknotes and coins were officially unveiled on 12.12.2012 and issued into circulation from 02.04.2013.

The new Series of Coins and Banknotes replaced the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II with Fiji’s endemic flora and fauna themes/designs, some of the designs exhibiting flora and fauna found only in Fiji while some are believed to be extinct.

This is a change as Fiji has been portraying members of the British Royal Family on Fiji’s Banknotes for the past 78 years or so. This is in response to several questions from politicians and pressure groups that even after being declared a Republic, Queen Elizabeth II’s portrait is still continuing on Fijian currency and it should be removed.

 The new Series focuses on conservation of Fiji’s biodiversity and creating awareness of the threats to biodiversity.

De La Rue, the World’s biggest commercial Banknote Printer in the United Kingdom and one of the World’s leading coin mints the Royal Canadian Mint, Canada have been tasked with printing the new Series and minting of coins in plated steel respectively.

A new polymer Banknote in $5 denomination and a new $2 coin were introduced in the new Series of Banknotes and coins.
 For the visually impaired users, the Banknotes have varied sizes and coins have different edges to assist them in easy identification of various denominations.

Banknotes of $2 and $5 of the earlier Series have been withdrawn from circulation on 31.03.2013, however, the other denominations are still legal tender and will be taken out of circulation in a gradual process. On the other hand, the earlier Series of Coins will continue to circulate in tandem with the new Series.

The new Series Banknotes:
The Front of the Five dollar polymer Banknote depicts Fiji’s endemic Kulawai (or “Red throated Lorikeet”) the smallest parrot found in Fiji.  Predominantly green, the “Kulawai” is a very rare inhabitant of the mountain forest canopy which feeds on nectar and pollen. “Kulawai” has only been sighted in Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni and Ovalau. It was last sighted in 1993.

Also featured on the Front bottom is a “Kato ni Masima” (or salt basket). A polymer clear window with an “I-Taukei” man is also seen on this Banknote. The colour of this Banknote is green.

(I-Taukei: All Fiji citizens are now called “Fijians, however, indigenous Fijians are called “I-Taukei”).

The Back of the Five dollar Banknote depicts Fiji’s endangered Crested Iguana, endemic “Balaka Palm”, “Masiratu flower” and “Mount Valili” in Vanua Levu.
 The Front of the Ten dollar Banknote depicts Fiji’s endemic “Beli” (or Lever’s Goby). “Beli” is one of the true freshwater fish, living all its life in fast-running fresh water as it flows over stones to which they often attach.  “Beli” are often found in mid reaches of clear streams on all the high islands. Their presence in any river is an indication of good habitat quality and minimal catchment disturbance.
 In addition, an image of I Buburau-ni-bete” (duck dish) is also seen on this Face of the Banknote. The colour of this Banknote is purple.
 The Back of the Ten dollar Banknote shows the Grand Pacific Hotel in Suva in 1914 and the Joske’s Thumb in the background.
The Front of the Twenty dollar Banknote shows one of the World’s iconic rare birds, the “Kacau ni Gau” (Fiji Petrel) which is known to nest only on Gau Island in Fiji. It is believed that only about fifty pairs of these birds survive today. For much of its life, the “Kacau ni Gau” is a true ocean bird and remains at Sea for months on end. Adults return to Gau only to breed in a burrow in the upland forests during night and leave for the ocean before dawn.
In addition, there is an image of a Foa (Rotuman coconut scraper) is also featured on this Face of the Banknote. The colour of this Banknote is blue.
 The Back of the Twenty dollar Banknote features fishing, forestry, sugarcane and mining industries of Fiji. Mount “Ului-nabukelevu” in Kadavu is also featured in the background.
 The Front of the Fifty dollar Banknote depicts the “Tagimoucia(Medinella waterhousei) flower, which is Fiji’s best known flower, having been recommended for being designated as the National Flower several times in the past. The flower also figures in several songs, tales and folk-lore. The name “Tagimoucia” is synonymous with the plant in its home in upland Taveuni around the lake with the same name. “Medinella waterhousei” is also found on “Mount Seatura” in Bua.
Also seen on this Face is an image of a Wasekaseba or Whale-tooth necklace. The colour of this Banknote is red.
 The Back of the Fifty dollar banknote features a culture and heritage theme with descriptions of a traditional “Tabua” and “Yaqona Vakaturaga”.
 The Front of the Hundred dollar Banknote shows Fiji’s Nanai (Cicada). Fiji has the richest fauna of cicadas in the south-west Pacific with 19 species, all of which are endemic. Cicadas are well known for their loud calls, some of which resound through Fiji’s forests. “Maka” is the common Fijian name for cicadas in general. “Nanai” is well known to the inland communities of Viti Levu as it emerges in enormous numbers once every eight years and is not seen otherwise.
Also featured on the Front is an image of a “Buli Kula” (Golden Cowrie). The colour of this Banknote is yellow.
 The Back of the Hundred dollar Banknote shows a map of Fiji with 180 degree Meridian Line marking the dawn of a new day, smiling faces representing Fiji’s friendly people, a cruise boat for island hopping and tourists snorkelling.

 Some other features of these Banknotes:

 Raised intaglio bars and raised print is there on $10, $20, $50 and $100 Banknotes.

-      Colour shifting/changing thread is included in $100 Banknotes.

-      A hologram showing an image of the bird “Kacau ni Gau”, the letters RBF, RBF logo tagaga and the numeral 20 are seen inside the hologram on $20 Banknotes.

-      A hidden text showing the word “FIJI” when tilted is seen on $10, $20, $50 and $100 Banknotes.

-      A security thread appearing as a continuous line with the letters RBF, RBF logo tagaga and the denomination numeral written on the thread.

 A Special Commemorative Banknote: Excerpts posted on 08.04.2018:
  The following Special Commemorative Banknote has been brought for collection by Jayant Biswas who was visiting us in Pune a few days ago.

  This Banknote was issued after the 2016 Summer Olympics held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, when Fiji's National Rugby team won a gold medal in "Rugby Sevens" category on 11.08.2016:

  The Front of the 7 Dollars Banknote shows Fiji's Olympian coach Ben Ryan sitting on Sigatoka Sand Dunes while the Olympic captain Osea Kolinisau is seen running with the ball. In the background is the National Flag of Fiji

  There are images of the Olympic Gold medal and the Reserve Bank of Fiji's logo in OVI along with the Fijian Coat of Arms.
  The Back of the 7 Dollars Banknote shows Fiji's 7s Gold Olympians with Prime Minister Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama and team officials, Reserve Bank of Fiji's logo and "domodomo" (a horned masthead).

   Other specifications of this Banknote are:
  Predominant colour: Blue; Watermark: Savenaca Rawaca running with the ball; Additional security: 2 mm wide STARsheen windowed security thread with demetalised FIJI 7s GOLD OLYMPIANS; Printer: Oberthur Fiduciare; Size: 140 mm x 67 mm; Date of issue: 21.04.2017.

New Series of Coins:
In 1990, new compositions ere introduced with copper-plated zinc for 1 and 2 cents and nickel plated steel for 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents.

In 1995, an aluminium-bronze, $1 coin was circulated.

In 2009, smaller 5 to 50 cent coins were circulated.
The following is a set of coins issued by Fiji in 2010, which depict the Queen's portrait for the last time, before a new Series of Coins was introduced without the Queen's bust.

The Obverses of the 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and $1 coins, which were the last issues with the Queen’s portrait on them. The Queen’s portrait is an earlier one designed by Raphael David Maklouf. These coins were released in 2010 except for the 50 cents coin which was issued in 2009.

The Reverses of the above 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and $1 coins.

The Reverse of the 5 Cents coin shows a Fijian drum “Lali”.

The coin specifications are: Metal Composition: Cupro-Nickel; Weight: 2.8 gms; Diameter:19.35 mm; Shape: Round; Edge: Reeded.
The Reverse of the 10 Cents coin shows a “Ula Tava Tava” or a Throwing Club.

The coin specifications are: Metal Composition: Cupro-Nickel; Weight: 5.6 gms; Diameter 23.6 mm; Thickness: 1.71 mm; Shape: Round; Edge: Reeded.

The Reverse of the 20 Cents coin shows a “Tabua” (a Sperm Whale tooth) suspended from a chain of looped Sennit fibre, or “magi-magi” (which is a Coconut fibre). This is used as a ritual present.

The coin specifications are: Metal Composition: Nickel plated steel; Weight: 4.68 gms; Diameter 24.0 mm; Thickness: 1.62 mm; Shape: Round; Edge: Plain.
The Reverse of the 50 Cents coin shows a traditional Polynesian sailing boat.

The coin specifications are: Metal Composition: Cupro-Nickel; Weight: 15.55 gms; Diameter 31.5mm; Shape: Round with Dodecagonal (12-sided) border on both sides; Edge: Plain.
The Reverse of the $1 coin shows a “Saqamoli, which is an indigenous water-bottle.

The coin specifications are: Metal Composition: Aluminium Bronze; Weight: 8.0 gms; Diameter 23.0 mm; Shape: Round with 8-sided border on both sides; Edge: Plain.

In 2013, a new Series of coins was introduced with fauna themes and without the Queen’s bust.

This Series has introduced a $2 coin for the first time.

The obverse of the Five cents coin shows a “Nuqa-roro” (bi-colour Rabbitfish). Discovered in Fiji’s waters, this distinctive species has since been found from Tonga to New Caledonia, but remains relatively uncommon throughout its range. It is an algae feeder and is much sought after by Aquarium owners and is in need of conservation within its habitat.

The reverse of the Five cent coin shows a “Lali” (drum).

The obverse of a Ten cents coin shows a “Beka-Mirimiri" (Fiji Flying Fox) which is one of the World’s rarest mammals. It has only been recorded on three occasions in the upland cloud forests of Taveuni at elevations near or higher than 1000 metres. Because if its rarity, nothing is known of its behaviour and ecology.

The reverse of a Ten cents coin shows an “I ula tavatava” (throwing club).

The obverse of a Twenty cents coin shows a Kaka” orKadavu variety of parrot” which is accepted as a full species. 

The red feathers of Fiji’s parrots were in older times also used as currency of trade for many of the Pacific’s earliest inhabitants.  Nevertheless, very little is known about the present status, ecology and behaviour of the Kadavu parrot.

The reverse of a Twenty cents coin shows a Tabua” (whale’s tooth).

The obverse of a Fifty cents coin shows a “Varivoce” (Humphead Wrasse), one of the largest reef fishes in the World earning its name from the prominent hump that develops on the forehead of mature individuals. The Fish has a life span of at least 30 years and takes about five years to reach full maturity. Although it is now protected in Fiji, this fish is a highly sought after species as food.

The reverse of a Fifty cents coin shows a “Camakau” (traditional outrigger canoe).

The obverse of a One dollars coin shows a “Vokai” (Banded Iguana), which is found on many islands of Lau. Banded Iguanas are extremely well camouflaged and cryptic in nature and very rarely seen. Fiji has three species of Iguana each one genetically different from the other. Efforts are on to conserve each one as a distinctive population.

The reverse of a One dollar coin shows a “Saqamoli” (drinking vessel).

The obverse of a two dollar coin shows a “Ga ni Vatu” (Peregrine Falcon),which is one of the World’s best known “birds of prey”.  Fiji has a distinctive sub-species – “nesiotes” – or “the islander”. This sub-species is the most elegant of all Peregrines worldwide. For Fijians the “Ga ni Vatu” has a powerful mystique, which originated from a largely obscure legend of a fabulous “Ga ni Vatu” from the Yasawa Islands. The Fijian population of Ga ni Vatu is now believed to be less than 100 pairs and there is an urgent need of conservation efforts to be stepped up.

The reverse of a two dollar coin shows a “Tanoa” (kava bowl) introduced in the 1700s in Fiji and in widespread use by the mid-nineteenth century.

Coat of Arms/Emblem of Fiji:

The Coat of Arms of Fiji was granted by Royal Letters Patent on 04.07.1908. The details are:

Crest: A Fijian Canoe with outrigger in full sail proper.

Torse: Of the colours.

Escutcheon: Argent, a Cross Gules, between in the first quarter three Sugar canes couped, in the second, a cocoa-nut palm also couped, in the third a Dove Volant holding in the beak a branch of Banana fruits slipped, all proper, on a chief Gules, a Lion passant guardant, holding between the forepaws a Cocoa pod proper.

Supporters: Dexter, a Fijian native affronty, round his waist a Tupu Sulu, holding in the exterior hand a barbed spear all proper, sinister a like native in profile holding in the exterior hand a pineapple club in bend sinister.

Motto (on a ribbon) below the shield: “Rerevaka na kalou ka doka na Tui” (“Fear God and honour the King”).

The shield has images both representing Fiji’s primary produce and its links with both colonial and pre-colonial past.

The English Lion stands above the Cross of St. George, but in its paws holds a cocoa pod, an indigenous produce.

Three of the four quarters around the Cross also show indigenously grown crops: sugarcanes, coconut palm and a bunch of bananas. The fourth quarter shows a Dove of peace, which is the main element of the Flag of King Cakobau, the first King of Fiji.

(The above Banknotes are from the collection of Jayant Biswas. Jayant has brought the Fiji Coins of the 2010 Series from one of his trips to the USA for my collection. Article researched & Banknotes scanned by Rajeev Prasad)

Links to Posts on Australia, New Zealand and countries and Overseas Territories of the South Pacific on this blog:

1) Bank of Papua New Guinea: 36th Anniversary Celebrations (1973-2008): A Commemorative Uncirulated Coin Set consisting of a 2 Kina Banknote & a 2 Kina Coin

2) Papua New Guinea: An uncirculated coin set brought out in 1995 commemorating the 20th Anniversary of Independence 

 3) Currency & Coinage of the Soloman Islands: Dollars and Cents

4) New Zealand: New Banknote "Seventh Series" issued under Project "Brighter Money" from 2015 onwards

5) Coinage of the French Polynesian Island of Caledonia (or Nouvelle Caledonie) the CFP Franc  

6) French Institution for issuing uniform currency/coinage for French Overseas Territories in the Pacific and the French Southern Territories of Antarctica: The Institut d'emmission d'outre Mer (IEOM)

7) Currency & Coinage of Samoa: Tala and Sene 

8) Currency of the South Pacific Island Country of Fiji 

9) Coinage of New Zealand: A commemorative coin set issued in 1979 

10) Currency and Coinage of Australia: Dollars and Cents 

11) The Australian Emblem or the Coat of Arms 

12) The story of the Australian Penny 

13) The Legend of the Mutiny on the Bounty: A Commemorative Coin Set from the Pitcairn Islands depicting relics from the Bounty issued in 2009 

14) An Australian $5 coin issued in 1996, commemorating Australia's greatest cricketing legend - Sir Donald Bradman 

15) New Series/Generation of Australian Banknotes being introduced from 01.09.2016 onwards starting from $5 issues 


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