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Tuesday, 28 July 2015

204) Banknotes & Coins of Denmark: Krone (or Kroner) and Ore: (Part (II): The Evolution of Banknotes of Denmark:



204) Banknotes & Coins of  Denmark: Krone (or Kroner) and Ore: (Part (II): The Evolution of Banknotes of Denmark:

(This is Part II of the Post titled “Banknotes and Coins of Denmark”. For information on the evolution and historical development of Coinage in Denmark click: here)

Banknotes of Denmark:

The Danmarks Nationalbank issues Banknotes of the Danish Krone.

Banknotes of the 1972 Series:

The Banknotes of the 1972 Series have been issued by the Danmarks Nationalbank which has been issuing Banknotes for Denmark since 01.08.1818.

Although the Banknotes of the 1972 Series are still legal tender, they are no longer printed.

The theme of these Banknotes is the paintings of various famous/prominent people of Society by Jens Juel (1745-1802) on the Front and paintings by well-known Danish painters on common animals in Denmark on the Back.

On the Front of the 10 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of Catherine Sophie Kirchhoff, nee Christensen, who was married to the Councillor of State J.H. Kirchhoff.

On the Back of the 10 Kroner Banknote is depicted a Female Common Eider, a painting by Johannes Larsen (1867-1961).

This Banknote was first issued on 08.04.1975 and went out of print on 11.03.1980.

On the Front of the 20 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of Pauline Tetein, nee Tath.

On the Back of the 20 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of two sparrows by Gunnar Larsen (1919-1981). Interestingly, on all the Banknotes, the sparrows show three legs as depicted in the painting and the Banknote became a part of an April Fool’s Day prank, where all such Banknotes were pronounced as counterfeits by the pranksters.

This Banknote was first issued on 11.03.1980 and went out of print on 10.04.1990, when the 20 Kroner Banknote was replaced by a coin.

On the Front of the 50 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of Engeike Charlotte Ryberg nee Falbe.

On the Back of the 50 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of a Crucian Carp by Ib Andersen (1907-69).

This Banknote was first issued on 21.01.1975 and went out of print on 07.05.1999.

On the Front of the 100 Kroner Banknote is depicted a self-portrait of Jens Juel.

On the Back of the 100 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of a Red Underwing by Ib Andersen (1907-69).

This Banknote was first issued on 22.10.1974, an updated version was circulated in 1995 with additional security features and this Banknote went out of print on 22.11.1999.

On the Front of the 500 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of Franzisca Genoveva von Qualen, nee d’Abbestee.

On the Back of the 500 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of a Sand Lizard by Ib Andersen (1907-69).

This Banknote was first issued on 18.04.1972 and went out of print on 12.09.1997.

On the Front of the 1000 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of Thomasine Heiberg, nee Buntzen, mother-in-law to actress Johanne Luise Heiberg who featured on the 200 Kroner Banknote of the 1997 Series.

On the Back of the 1000 Kroner Banknote is depicted a painting of a Red Squirrel by Ib Andersen (1907-69).

This Banknote was first issued on 11.03.1975 and went out of print on 18.09.1998.

Banknotes of the 1997 Series:

The 1997 Series of Banknotes improved the Security Features of the Banknotes so as to prevent counterfeiting. When the Banknotes are tilted, various motifs appear in the hologram. Also, fluorescent colours, which are visible under Ultra-violet light are used on both sides of the Banknotes.

During 2002-2005, some additional Security Features were added.

On the Front of the 50 Kroner Banknote is depicted a portrait of the Danish writer Karen Bixen.

Karen Bixen: (17.04.1885 – 07.09.1962): She is an acclaimed writer having written “Seven Gothic Tales (1935) and her memoirs “Out of Africa (1937). Also depicted on this face are flowers, which Karen Bixen was very fond of. 

I have seen a movie titled “Out of Africa”, based on her memoirs, which beautifully portrayed her experiences while she was in Africa and left a lasting impression of life in Africa on the viewers.

On the Back of the 50 Kroner Banknote is depicted a Centaur inspired by an image of a Centaur in Stone Relief in Landet Church on the island of Tasinge.

This Banknote had the word “Femti (and not “Halvtredswhich is the traditional Danish word for fifty).

The Size of this Banknote was 125 mm x 72 mm and its predominant colour is purple.

The Security features include – when the Banknote is tilted, the hologram alternately shows the figure 50, the Roman numeral “L” and a flower. The Fluorescent effects show the Centaur on the Front and a green print on the Back.

This Banknote was first issued on 07.05.1997, updated on 25.08.2005 (new version) and went out of print on 11.08.2009.

On the Front of the 100 Kroner Banknote is depicted a portrait of the Danish composer Carl Nielson.

Carl Neilson (09.06.1865 – 03.10.1931): He was an Orchestra Leader, Conductor and Music Teacher and a versatile composer. He is known for writing Operas such as “Maskarade” (1905-06) among many popular symphonic works.

On the Back of the 100 Kroner Banknote is depicted a Basilisk from Tommerby Church.

The Basilisk: is part snake, part dragon and part rooster. Basilisk means “Little King” and the figure is recognisable by its crown.

The 100 Kroner Banknote is also referred to as a “hund” (Danish for “hound”) from a shortening of the word “hundrede” (or a “hundred”).

The Security features include – the hologram alternately shows two musical notes, the Roman numeral “C” and the number “100”. When the Banknote is tilted, the “C” grows larger and a rainbow appears. When using a magnifying glass, one can see a micro-printed “100” in the outer line around the letter “C”. The Fluorescent effects show the Basilisk on the Front and an orange print on the Back.

The Size of this Banknote was 135 mm x 72 mm and its predominant colour is Orange.

This Banknote was first issued on 22.11.1999, updated on 27.11.2002 (new version) and went out of print as of 04.05.2010.

On the Front of the 200 Kroner Banknote is depicted a portrait of the Danish actress Johanne Luise Heiberg.

Johanne Luise Heiberg (22.11.1812 – 21.12.1890): She was one of the greatest Danish actresses of the 19th Century and took the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen by storm on several occasions. Her Autobiography “Et liv genoplevet i erindringen” (meaning “A Life Relived in Memory”) is a popular literary work from the Danish Golden Age.

On the Back of the 200 Kroner Banknote is depicted a Lion from the Apse of Viborg Cathedral.

The Size of this Banknote was 145 mm x 72 mm and its predominant colour is Green.

The Security features include – the hologram alternately shows a Lion, the Roman numeral “CC” and the number “200”. When the Banknote is tilted, the “CC” grows larger. The Fluorescent effects show the Lion on the Front and a green print on the Back.

This Banknote was first issued on 10.03.1997, updated on 09.04.2003 (new version) and went out of print as of 19.10.2010.

On the Front of the 500 Kroner Banknote is depicted a portrait of the Danish Nuclear Physicist Neils Bohr.

Neils Bohr (07.10.1885 – 18.11.1962): He was a major contributor to modern science and very influential in the development of Modern Nuclear Physics. He was the first to propose that electrons in an atom move within discrete “orbits”. He suggested that these orbits have fixed energy levels and that atoms emit or absorb energy in fixed amounts “quanta” as electrons move between orbits. Bohr’s orbits are today called “orbitals”, they are sub-structures of electron shells.

He won several Awards, including the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.

On the Back of the 500 Kroner Banknote is depicted a knight in armour battling a Dragon, which is inspired from a Stone Relief from Lihme Church in Northern Jutland.

The 500 Kroner Banknote is also referred to as a “Plovmand” (meaning a “Ploughman”), because previous issues of this denomination featured an image of a man with a plough.

The Security features include – the hologram alternately shows an Atom, the Roman numeral “D” and the number “500”. The Fluorescent effects show the Knight on the Front and an orange print on the Back.

The Size of this Banknote was 155 mm x 72 mm and its predominant colour is Blue.

This Banknote was first issued on 12.09.1997, updated on 24.09.2003 and went out of print as of 15.02.2011.

On the Front of the 1000 Kroner Banknote are depicted portraits of Danish artists Anna and Michael Ancher.

Anna (18.08.1859 – 15.04.1935) Michael Ancher (09.06.1849 – 19.09.1927): The couple are famous for their paintings depicting everyday life in the fishing town of Skagen. The portraits were inspired by Danish artist Peder Severin Kroyer’s paintings made in 1884. The anchor background pattern on this face of the Banknote refers to a necklace worn by Anna.

On the Back of the 1000 Kroner Banknote is depicted a tournament scene from a sepulchral monument in Bislev Church in Northern Jutland.

The 1000 Kroner Banknote is also referred to as a “Tudse” (meaning a “toad”) from a word play on the word “Tusinde” (meaning a “thousand”). It is also referred to as an “egern” (squirrel), from the design of a red squirrel, which was carried in the earlier 1972 Series of Banknotes on the 1000 Kroner Banknote.

The Security features include – the hologram alternately shows a Palette, the Roman numeral “M” and the number “1000”. The Fluorescent effects show the Knight on the Front and an orange print on the Back.

The Size of this Banknote was 165 mm x 72 mm and its predominant colour is Red.

This Banknote was first issued on 18.09.1998, updated on 25.11.2004.

The 1997 Banknote Series was replaced as of 24.05.2011.

Banknotes of 2009 Series:

The theme of these Banknotes is “Bridges of Denmark” on the Front and ancient Danish artefacts found in the vicinity of the Bridges.

 The theme was symbolic of the Bridges being the links between various locations in Denmark to its distinct past. The present was represented by the Bridges, while the past was represented by five distinctive pre-historic objects found near the Bridges.

The designer of these Banknotes was the artist Karin Birgitte Lund.

The sizes of these Banknotes are similar to the 1997 Banknotes.



The Front of the 50 Kroner Banknote showing a representation of the Sallingsund Bridge. The denomination of the Banknote is mentioned as “HALVTREDS KRONER”.

On the Front of the 50 Krone Banknote is depicted the Sallingsund Bridge of 1978.

The Sallingsund Bridge (or “Sallingsundbroen”):  This is is a Bridge that crosses Sallingsund between the island of Mors and the Salling peninsula on the mainland (Jylland or Jutland) in Denmark. The Bridge is 1717 metres long with its longest span being 93 metres and the maximum clearance to the Sea being 26 metres. The construction of the bridge commenced in 1973 and it was completed in 1978.

Before the Bridge was built, passengers were taken across the Sound by two Ferries – “Pinen” (“Pain”) and “Plagen” (Bother”).



The Back of the 50 Kroner Banknote showing a representation of the Skarpsalling Vessel. The location map of the bridge as well as Skarpsalling, where the vessel was found is also given on this face of the Banknote.

On the Back of the 50 Krone Banknote is depicted the Skarpsalling Vessel, which dates back to around 3200 BC. The word “halvtreds” (halvtredsindstyve = half-third times 20 = half of the third times 20 = 2 ½ x20 = fifty) has been used on this Banknote, instead of “femti” (meaning “five tens” which was mentioned on the previous Series on the 50 Kroner Banknotes).



                    The above is an image of the Skarpsalling vessel.

The Skarpsalling Vessel: This is one of the most beautiful richly decorated objects from the Danish pre-historic period. In the Stone Age, in particular, beautiful pottery was very popular on the basis of form and decoration.

The Skarpsalling vessel/pot is one of the best known examples of Stone Age pottery. It was found at a barrow near Skarpsalling in Himmerland and was crafted around 3200 BC.

The vessel is decorated in the “Troldebjerg” style. It is presently exhibited in the National Museum at Copenhagen.

This Banknote was first issued on 11.08.2009. The size of this Banknote is 125 mm x 72 mm and its colour is Purple.



The Front of the 100 Kroner Banknote showing a representation of the Old Little Belt Bridge The denomination of the Banknote is mentioned as “ET HUNDREDE KRONER”.

On the Front of the 100 Krone Banknote is depicted the Old Little Belt Bridge of 1935.

220 px The little Belt bridge


The above is an image of the Little Belt Bridge as it is seen today.

The Little Belt Bridge (or “Gamle Lillebaeltsbro”):  Also known as the “Old Little Belt Bridge” is a truss bridge over the Little Belt strait in Denmark. It was the first bridge to have been constructed over the Strait, spanning from Snoghoj on Jutland to Kongebrogaarden on Funen.

The construction of the Bridge was started by 1929 and it was completed in 1935. Spanning a length of 1178 metres, the bridge is 20.5 metres wide and 33 metres high, with a main span of 220 metres. The bridge has two Railway tracks, two narrow lanes for cars and a sidewalk for pedestrians.

The bridge was the first step in linking the three parts of Denmark by road, with the second step being completed with the Great Belt Bridge in June 1998, as previously only ferries and boats were used as transport over the belts.

With the new Little Belt Bridge coming into use in 1970, the old bridge’s importance in ferrying traffic has hugely diminished.



The Back of the 100 Kroner Banknote showing a representation of the Hindsgavl Dagger. The location map of the Bridge as well as Hindsgavl, where the vessel was found is also given on this face of the Banknote.

On the Back of the 100 Krone Banknote is depicted the Hindsgavl Dagger dating back from around 1900 to 1700 BC.



                      The above is an image of the Hindsgavl Dagger.

The Hindsgavl Dagger: This magnificent dagger from Hindsgavl has a blade less than 1 cm thick and is the finest example of the flint worker’s outstanding skills towards the end of the Stone Age.

This dagger was found around 1876 on the island of Faeno in the Little Belt. The dagger type is called a “fishtail dagger” because of the fishtail-formed hilt. Pressure-flaked daggers were typical of the end of the Stone Age and are one of the reasons why the period from 2400-1800 BC is called the “Dagger Period”.

This Banknote was first issued on 04.05.2010. The size of this Banknote is 135 mm x 72 mm and its colour is Orange.

The Front of the 200 Krone Banknote is depicted “Knippelsbro (Knippel’s Bridge) of 1937.



        The above is an image of Knippel’s Bridge as it is seen today.

Knippel’s Bridge or “Knippelsbro”: This is a bascule Bridge across the Inner Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. It connects Borsgade (meaning “Stock Exchange Street”) on Zealand side Slotsholmen to Torvegade (meaning “Market Street”) on Christianshavn.

The Bridge was originally known as “Store Amager Bro” (meaning “Great Amager Bridge”) or “Langebro” (meaning “Long Bridge”). Later. it was renamed “Christianshavnsbro” (meaning “Christianshavn’s Bridge”) in 1700.

Interestingly, the present name of the Bridge comes from the name Hans Knip, who was the caretaker of the Bridge in 1641 who operated the Bridge and collected toll from passing ships. His house was called as “Knippenshus” (or “Knippen’s house”) and the Bridge became famous as “Knippensbro” in the 17th Century. The present name is a distortion of the 17th Century version.

It measures 115 metres in length and is in use since 1937. It is the fifth bridge at this site, the first having been constructed by Christian IV in 1618-20 as a wooden bridge. The first iron bridge was constructed in 1668-69 which was renovated in 1908 and replaced by an intermistic bridge in 1934.

On the Back of the 200 Krone Banknote is depicted the Langstrup Belt Plate from the early Bronze Age (dating about 1400 BC).



                 The above is an image of the Langstrup Belt Plate.

The Langstrup Belt Plate: It is about 28 cm in diameter, and is the largest of all antique belt-plates from Denmark. It is also one of the most artistic pieces of work.

Four concentric bands of continuous spirals, accurately completed, are bounded by zones with lines and short transverse bands.

The belt plate was cast through an advanced technique where a wax model of the belt plate is initially made. This wax model is carefully punched with coils. The stamp consisted of a wire of copper or gold which was put on a little wooden block. After the wax model was complete, it was brushed over with a thin clay mixture which was allowed to dry. Then the Bronze caster surrounded the entire model with lean clay, which was burnt. A mould of clay with an inner cavity was now created, with the wax melting away during heating. The bronze was now poured into the cavity. After the Bronze had solidified, the clay mould was crushed. The surface was then polished after attending to the finer details of the piece.

 The best belt plates which were made through this process were extremely thin. This belt plate was cast around 1400 BC when the Bronze Age spiral style was at its peak.

 Several similar spiral patterns can be seen on many different objects from this period, including swords, spearheads, axes as well as the Sun Disk on the Sun Chariot.

This Banknote was first issued on 19.10.2010. The size of this Banknote is 145 mm x 72 mm and its colour is Green.

The Front of the 500 Krone Banknote is depicted Queen Alexandrine Bridge of 1943.

        The above is an image of Alexandrine Bridge as it is seen today.

The Queen Alexandrine Bridge (or “Dronning Alexandrines Bro”): is a Road Arch Bridge that crosses Ulv Sund between the islands of Zealand and Mon in Denmark. The construction of the Bridge commenced in 1939 and was completed in 1943. It was the main road connection between the islands until the Faro Bridges were opened in 1985.

The Bridge is 745 metres long and 10.7 metres wide. The central arch span is 127 metres and the maximum clearance to the Sea is 26 metres. The Bridge is of steel arch construction, having ten piers in the Sea from which the arches spring upwards.

On the Back of the 500 Krone Banknote is depicted the Keldby Vessel (bronze) from the 4th or early 3rd Century BC.

          The above is an image of the Keldby Bucket/Vessel.

The Keldby Vessel: This Bronze Bucket from Keldby was found in 1826 at a hill named “Trehoje” near Keldby on the island of “Mon”. The Bucket was made around 300 BC.

 Various conjectures have been made as to the origins of the bucket. One theory is that it was made in Corinth, near Athens, while another places it as having been made at a workshop in the Greek Colony of Taranto in Southern Italy or in a Greek Colony on the Black Sea.

Possible uses of the Bucket could be – a burial urn, or an urn for burnt bones or a wine vessel, as beautiful Greek bronze vessels were used as containers for wine.

This Banknote was first issued on 15.02.2011. The size of this Banknote is 155 mm x 72 mm and its colour is Blue.

The Front of the 1000 Krone Banknote is depicted the Great Belt Bridge of 1998.

 The above is an image of the Great Belt bridge as it is seen today.

The Great Belt Bridge or “Storebaeltsforbindelsen”: This Bridge constructed in 1998, runs between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen. It consists of three structures – a Road Suspension Bridge, a Railway Tunnel between Zealand and the island of Sprogo located in the middle of the Great Belt and a Box Girder Bridge for both road and rail traffic between Sprogo and Funen.

The Bridge is variously referred to as the “Suspension Bridge” (East Bridge or “Ostbroen”) or the “Box-girder Bridge” (West Bridge or “Vestbroen”).

The Bridge has the World’s third longest main span, at about 1.6 km and has reduced travel-time significantly.

The construction of this Bridge and the Oresund Bridge have together enabled driving from mainland Europe to Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia through Denmark with ease.

On the Back of the 1000 Krone Banknote is depicted the Trundholm Sun Chariot from the early Bronze Age dating to about 1400 BC.



The above is an image of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, which is brightly lit/polished representing the Sun’s rays falling on the planet Earth as it traverses through the Sky during the day on his horse-driven chariot.



The above is an image of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, which is dull/unpolished, representing darkness of the night as the Sun’s chariot has traversed beyond this face of the Earth and night/darkness has fallen.

The Trundholm Sun Chariot: The Trundholm Sun Chariot (in Danish “Solvognen”) is a late Nordic Bronze age artefact discovered in Denmark. It is a representation of the Sun chariot, a bronze statue of a horse and a large bronze disk which are placed on a device with spoked wheels.

 It was discovered in 1902 in a peat bog on the Trundholm moor in West Zealand County on the Northwest coast of the island of Sealand (Sjaelland) Denmark.

The two sides of the disk have been interpreted as an indication of the Sun drawn across the heavens from East to West during the day, presenting its bright side to the earth and returning from the West to East during the night, when the dark side is presented to the Earth. It is believed that a chariot similar to the artefact was pulled around during religious rituals to demonstrate the movement of the Sun in the heavens.

In Norse Mythology, a reference to the sun being drawn by a chariot is found.

The Nordic myths were preserved orally for several thousands of years, similar to the oral traditions of the Hindu Mythology (“Shruti” – meaning “heard” and passed on through generations through oral traditions till they were written down in the Vedic texts).

In Norse Mythology, the Sun Goddess “Sol” personifies the Sun, who rode through the sky on her chariot pulled by two horses – “Arvak” and “Alsvid”. The Trundholm Sun chariot may represent an even earlier form of the Sun which predated the Sun Goddess, Sol.

Similarly in Celtic Mythology, the Sky God Taranis is typically depicted with the attribute of the spoked wheel.

The Rig-Veda, a Hindu text also mentions the Sun God’s “Surya’s”chariot passing through the heavens, with seven horses (representing the seven colours of the rainbow or the seven chakras in the human body), yoked to his chariot named – “Gayatri”, “Brhati”, “Usnik”, “Jagati”, “Tristup”, “Anustup” and “Pankti”, driven by the charioteer Aruna.

The Sun God   has been described as traversing a distance of 95,100,000 yojanas or 760,800,000 miles in his orbit around the “Bhu-Mandala” in his horse-driven chariot at a speed of 2,000 yojanas and two kosas (16,004 kms) in a moment.
 A painting of the Sun ("Surya") riding a seven-horse driven chariot by the charioteer Aruna made by Paromita Mukerjee.

 Surya temples exist all over India, the most famous being the Sun Temple, at Konark, Orissa. Surya is also described as “Mitra” (meaning “friend” for his Life nourishing qualities.
  Images of the setting sun, at a Sun Temple.
 This kind of an alignment of the Sun is a rare occurence at any Sun Temple






 The Trundholm Sun Chariot dates back to around 1800 to 1600 BC.

This artifact is now in the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen.

This Banknote was first issued on 24.05.2011. The size of this Banknote is 165 mm x 72 mm and its colour is Red.

Strengthening the Security Features: The 2009 Series of Banknotes includes new Security features, viz., a window motion thread with a moving wave pattern, a new sophisticated hologram that reflects light in different colours, in addition to the traditional Security Features such as the Watermark and the hidden Security Thread.

The Watermark on all these Banknotes includes the denomination of the Banknote and the Skuldelev Viking Ship in Roskilde Fjord. The watermark is clearly visible when the Banknotes are held up against a light source.



The above is a representation of one of the Skuldelev ships as it is kept in the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde.

Skuldelev Ships: This is a term used for 6 Viking ships recovered from Peberrenden by Skuldelev c., some 20 km North of Roskilde in Denmark in 1962.

The recovered pieces of the six ships constitute six types of ships which date back to around the 11th century. From the recovered pieces it seems that they were scuttled by their crew to prevent attacks from the Sea.

The Skuldelev ships provide an excellent insight about ship-building traditions of the late Viking period. These ships are presently exhibited at the Viking Ship museum in Roskilde.

Post Script: Denmark is one step closer to becoming the first Modern Cashless Society. The Danmarks Nationalbank or “Nationalbanken” (or Danish National Bank) has announced in October 2014 that it will stop printing Banknotes and would likely be issuing coins only till the end of 2016. This decision is partially a money saving move and partially based on a domestic economy that has increasingly moved from using cash to using various forms of electronic transfers for financial institutions. Also, it has been observed that several vendors transact business in cash so as to avoid payment of 25% Value added Tax (VAT).

As an interim measure, the Danish Government has urged Danes to limit their cash payments to a maximum of 10000 Kroner in cash, which will ensure that there is no major case of tax evasion.

 “Dankort” is Denmark’s National Debit Card. It can function as a Credit Card as well, when used abroad, when combined with a Visa Card.





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