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Sunday, 1 November 2015

226) Currency and Coinage of the Solomon Islands: Dollars and Cents:



226) Currency and Coinage of the Solomon Islands: Dollars and Cents:

About the Solomon Islands:



Solomon Islands consists of a large number of islands in Oceania     lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and Northwest of Vanuatu covering about 28400 square kilometres or 11000 square miles. 

Its capital Honiara is located on the island of Guadalcanal. The country derives its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago which is a collection of Melanesian Islands which include the North Solomon Islands (which are part of Papua New Guinea) but exclude the outer islands like   Rennell and Bellona as well as the Santa Cruz Islands.

In 1568, these Islands were first visited by the Spanish Alvaro de Medena visited these islands during his unsuccessful attempt to search for “Terra Australis” (meaning “Land of Australia”). Medena named it “Islas Salomon” (meaning “Solomon Islands”) after the wealthy biblical King Solomon, under a mistaken assumption that the Archipelago contained immense riches.

Later these Islands were partitioned by Germany and Britain and declared as Protectorates in 1885 (by Germany) and 1893 (by Britain).

From 1899 to 1966, the Pound was the currency of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate subdivided into 20 shillings, each of twelve Pence.

In 1914, the German Islands were occupied by Australia.

 Initially, the British coins (1899 onwards till 1932) and Banknotes (from 1916 onwards- till 1932) – authorised by the British Solomon Islands Commission) circulated in the Islands. Prior to this Regulation, the Solomon Islands were using Australian and Burns Philip Banknotes. Interestingly, the first British Banknotes printed by currency printing major Thomas de la Rue although marked with the date 18.12.1916 were only put into circulation in July 1917 upon arrival from London.

The denominations put in circulation were 5 shilling, 10 shilling, 1 Pound and 5 Pound Banknotes. These Banknotes are also referred to as the Solomon Islands Pounds.

In 1920, Australian Banknotes and Coins began circulating, which supplemented the local paper currency which continued to be printed until 1932.

During the Great Depression in 1930, confusion reigned as to which currency was to be accepted by the locals – Australian Pound or the British Pound as the Australian Pound had broken parity to the British Pound.

The British King George V had to clarify the position through the imposition of a set of the King’s regulations, in terms of which all British territories (Papua New Guinea, British Solomon Islands Protectorate, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, the New Hebrides, etc. all apart from Fiji in the South Pacific had to adopt the Australian dollar as their currency.

As a result, in 1926, the 5 shilling British Pound Banknote was withdrawn from circulation, the 10 shilling Banknote was withdrawn in 1932 while the 1 Pound Banknote was withdrawn from circulation in 1933.

During World War II, between 1942 and 1944, the Solomon Islands were occupied by Japan during which time the Oceania Pound circulated here.

In 1945, after the War ended, the Australian Pound again circulated in the Solomon Islands.

In 1966, the Australian pound was replaced by the Australian dollar.

In 1976, the British Protectorate called the “British Solomon Islands” Protectorate was abolished and the name of the Independent country was changed to “Solomon Islands”.

Upon the Solomon Islands gaining Independence in 1977, the Solomon Islands dollar was introduced subdivided into 100 cents replacing the Australian dollar at par.

In 1979, the Solomon Islands Pound started losing its exchange value and by 2008, due to severe inflationary pressures, there was hoarding of coins, as a fail-safe measure against inflation. Interestingly, traditional monetary exchange methods like dolphin teeth etc. gained currency during these trying times, so much so, that the Government had to launch a public awareness campaign to encourage users to cash in their excess coins at Banks to alleviate the shortfall in coins.

The First Series of the Solomon Islands Coinage:

In 1977, on gaining Independence, Solomon Islands circulated its own coinage in the denominations of 1, 2 (Bronze), 5, 10 and 20 cents (cupro-nickel) and 1 dollar. The cent coins were of the same sizes, weights, metal compositions as their Australian counterparts, while the dollar coin was an equilaterally curved heptagonal (meaning “seven sided”) piece which had a cupro-nickel metallic composition. 

The Reverses of these coins depicted images of an item or symbol derived from Solomon Islands’ indigenous culture while the Obverse carried a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II designed by Arnold Machin.

On the Reverse of the 1 Cent Coin was a Bowl

The specifications of this coin were Diameter: 17.53 mm; Weight: 2.59 gms; Metallic Composition: 0.97 Copper, 0.025 Zinc, 0.005 Tin; Shape: Circular.

On the Reverse of the 2 Cents Coin was a Spirit

The specifications of this coin were Diameter: 21.59 mm; Weight: 5.18 gms; Metallic Composition: 0.97 Copper, 0.025 Zinc 0.005 Tin; Shape: Circular.

On the Reverse of the 5 Cents Coin was a Canoe Decoration.

The specifications of this coin were Diameter: 19.41 mm; Weight: 2.83 gms; Metallic Composition: 0.75 Copper, .25 Nickel; Shape: Circular.

On the Reverse of the 10 cent coin was the most notable depicting an indigenous Sea God – Ngorieru from the Temoto region.

The specifications of this coin were Diameter: 23.60 mm; Weight: 5.66 gms; Metallic Composition: 0.75 Copper, 0.25 Nickel; Shape: Circular.

On the Reverse of the 20 Cents Coin was a Pendant design.

The specifications of this coin were Diameter: 28.50 mm; Weight: 11.31 gms; Metallic Composition: 0.75 Copper, 0.25 Nickel; Shape: Circular.

In 1985, the 1 and 2 cent coins were minted in bronze-plated steel, instead of bronze due to greater cost of minting.

In 1988, a 50 cent coin was issued which was a commemorative piece celebrating the 10th Anniversary of Independence of Solomon Islands.

The specifications of this coin were Diameter: 28.50 mm; Weight: 10.00 gms; Metallic Composition: 0.75 Copper, 0.25 Nickel; Shape: 12-sided.

In 1989, the Bronze metallic composition of 20 cent coins was replaced by nickel-clad steel.

In 1990, Nickel-clad coins were minted in the denominations of 5 and 10 cents.

All these coins were minted by the Royal Australian Mint.

The Second Series of Solomon Islands Coinage (The 2012 Series):

In 2012, new smaller coins were issued in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 cents having a metallic composition of nickel-plated steel and 1 and 2 dollar coins minted in Brass due to inflationary costs of minting coins in the earlier Series.
The Reverse of the 50 cent commemorative coin showing "Bokolo" (Bird).

All the coins of Solomon Islands presently bear the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, as the Country’s titular Head of State.

This Series introduced a 2 dollar coin, which replaced the 2 dollar Banknote.

Minting of 1, 2 and 5 cent coins was stopped due to exorbitant cost of minting these denominations.

The 1 and 2 dollar coins resembled the Australian 1 and 2 dollar coins having the same thickness, colour and circumference, however, they differed in the metallic compositions and weights and their edge reeding.

Banknotes of the Solomon Islands:

On 24.10.1977, Banknotes were circulated in the denominations of 2, 5, 10 and 20 dollars. All these Banknotes were printed by the Currency paper and printing major Thomas De La Rue.

The Front of all these Banknotes bore the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II.
                         The Back of a 2 dollar Banknote.

On the Back of the $2 Banknote was a traditional spear/vine fishing scene and embellishments of Island “custom” designs and artefacts. On the upper side is a “Bokolo” and a ceremonial food bowl “Apira”.

The watermark is that of a Falcon landing.

The size of this Banknote was 70 mm x 140 mm and its colour was predominantly dark green.

                                         Images of "Bokolo" (Bird)

“Bokolo”: is a traditional form of money which the indigenous people of Solomon Islands used to pay as “bride money” or dowry, for buying land, tribal reconciliations and compensation.
                      Images of Apira ceremonial food bowls

Apira” (or “Ceremonial Food Bowl”): is an ornate ceremonial food bowl which was used for offerings and was displayed during other traditional occasions and celebratory events. Skilled craftsmen carved the soft wood “Alstoiaa Scholaris” that was darkened by a mixture of charcoal and natural plant sap and inlaid with nautilus oyster shells. Traditional motifs appearing on “Apiras” represented fishes, birds, animal or human figures.

 (In 2001, a polymer two dollar banknote was issued which continued till 2006, when it was again replaced by the cotton paper banknote in the 2006 Series).
                           The Back of a 5 dollar Banknote.

On the Back of the $5 Banknote were an indigenous resident of the Solomon Islands with a traditional Solomon Island War Canoe – a “Tomako” Canoe and miscellaneous Solomon Islands “custom” designs and artefacts. At lower left side and in the top right corner are “Nguzu Nguzu”  War Canoe figurehead “Toto Isu”.  Also seen is and tropical sea coast vegetation.

The watermark is of a Falcon landing.

The size of this Banknote was 75 mm x 145 mm and its colour was predominantly dark blue.

Traditional Solomon Islands War Canoe: This War Canoe comes from the Roviana in the Western Province and is known as “Tomako” in the native language. While going out to war, the canoe-borne warriors would give out war cries calling on their gods to give them strength and victory. The most prominent of these Gods was “Tiola” who was regarded as the God of the Province. Even today, symbolic war canoes are set afloat as a symbolic gesture to ancient traditions and the God Tiola is invoked.
 The prow of a Tomako War Canoe showing the figurehead "Toto Izu".

“Nguzu Nguzu” War Canoe Prow Figurehead “Toto Izu:

Canoe-prow figureheads were an important part of a War canoe. Their main positive supernatural function was to serve the Canoe and its warriors in a protective manner. The spirit of the Prow figure was believed to protect the occupants from natural and supernatural elements – from storms and dangerous waters to menacing water spirits. The large eyes and ears were believed to ward off sea spirits – the ears to hear everything in the air and underwater, the eyes foxed open in an ever-watchful piercing gaze. The figure-head were small in size and because they were tied to the prow low down at the waterline were not easily visible to onlookers. Usually, the figure-heads had horizontally thrusting jaw-lines and long curved upturned noses which gave them a “dog-like” countenance (perhaps, this was because they symbolised the eyes and ears of the canoe-borne warriors and represented “watch-dogs”).

The Canoe prow figures were painted in various colours – black, red, white, blue etc. Lines of carefully inlaid shells decorated their faces in rigid lines and flowing patterns that replicated the white painted designs seen in every-day facial decorations. The inlay was a finely cut into Z-shaped sections called “Asepaleo” or “small baitfish’s mouth” in Roviana. Most figureheads have hands pressed together under the chin, while some hold objects like birds and small human heads. The severed head is a head-hunting symbol while the bird is a navigation related symbol for locating land at sea. The bird effigy was also referred to as a “kesoko” (meaning” bird or sea spirit”).

The “Tomako” was one of the biggest and most graceful indigenous watercraft of all times, shaped like a crescent and capable of taking on board upto 30 warriors and could move at great speeds. These boats were used for making raids upon neighbouring islands for the purpose of taking human heads and capturing slaves.

Interestingly, these boats were not made from tree-trunks made hollow by stone implements or fire but these Canoes were built with thin planks of timber tied together with rattan to ribs of wood, bent in the shape of the boat which served as its frame. The joints were stopped with a black mastic which made these vessels totally impenetrable to water.

On the Front of the later 10 dollar Banknote carrying the Queen’s portrait, was seen stylised flying Fish and Frigate Birds, Ceremonial bowl shaped like bird (a Hornbill) (vessel in a bird’s back) called “Apira Ni Mwane” and fishes. Also depicted was a “Tema” (meaning “motif”) – a Santa Cruz Island shell pendant “Kapkap” and “Dafi” (engraved pearl shell gorget with Frigate bird overlay from Malaita Island) as a Registration device (security feature).
                              The Back of a 10 dollar Banknote

On the Back of the above 10 dollar Banknote was depicted “Poata” (or “Shell money”). Also depicted on this Face was a woman in Langa Langa lagoon making shell money using a turtle shell fly wheel to drill holes in shell disks and beads.

The size of this Banknote was 75 mm x 148 mm and its colour was predominantly purple and violet.

The watermark was that of a Falcon in flight landing.

Flying Fish (Exocoetidae): are a family of marine fish in the Order Beloniformes of the Class Actinopterygii. Flying Fish can make powerful, self-propelled leaps out of the water into air where their long wing-like fins enable gliding flight for considerable distances above the water’s surface.

Woman in Langa Langa lagoon making shell-money:

Shell money is made by drilling holes in Spondylus Mollusc shells by using traditional pump drills. These pump drills are used for a long time by shell money makers at Lana Langa lagoon on the West coast of Malaita Islands. These Islands are renowned for their shell money making process.
                      Images of Shell money (Poata)

Shell Money:

Four types of shells are used in making shell money. A red lipped rock oyster known as “romu” (Chama pacifica in the Family Chamidae), white shell known as “ke’e” (Beguina semiorbiculata in the Family Carditidae), Black Horse mussel shell called “kurila” (Atrina vexillum in the Family Pinnidae) and thick white disks from a rigid cockle known as “kakadu” or “kakandu” (Anadara granosa in the Family Arcidae).
                                  Images of Kapkap ornaments
 Kapkap:

Santa Cruz “Tema Kapkapis a full-moon style breast ornament worn at dances. The overlay motif represents an outline of a Frigate bird which are important to the indigenous people, because these birds show fishermen where schools of “bonito” (Tuna) fish are.

In 1980, a 20 dollar Banknote was introduced.
                 The Back of the 20 dollar Banknote.

On the Back of the above 20 dollar Banknote was depicted a group of warriors performing a traditional dance and a “Lave Lave” shield.

The  watermark was that of a Falcon landing.

The size of this Banknote was 77 mm x 155 mm and its colour was predominantly brown and deep orange.

The 1986 Series of Banknotes:

Initially, the Front of all these Banknotes carried the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, but the 1986 Series of Banknotes was issued with the Coat of Arms which replaced the Queen’s portrait with images of the National Emblem/Crest/Coat of Arms of the Solomon Islands, indigenous culture, flora and fauna etc.

The denominations included in this Series were 2, 5, 10, 20 dollars and a newly introduced denomination – 50 dollars.

On the Front of the later 10 dollar Banknote carrying the National Coat of Arms having a Crocodile and a Shark, was seen stylised Flying Fish and Frigate Birds, Ceremonial bowl shaped like bird (a Hornbill) (vessel in a bird’s back) called “Apira Ni Mwane” and fishes. Also depicted was a “Tema” (meaning “motif”) – a Santa Cruz Island shell pendant “Kapkap” and “Dafi” (engraved pearl shell gorget with Frigate bird overlay from Malaita Island) as a Registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the above 10 dollar Banknote was depicted “Poata” or “Shell money”. Also depicted on this Face was a woman in Langa Langa lagoon making shell money using a turtle shell fly wheel to drill holes in shell disks and beads.

The size of this Banknote was 75 mm x 148 mm and its colour was predominantly purple and violet.

The watermark was that of a Falcon in flight landing.

On the Front of the later 20 dollar Banknote carrying the National Coat of Arms having a Crocodile and a Shark, was depicted a carved Bonito Fish and a warrior club. “Dala Kapkap” and a shield were marked as a registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the above 20 dollar Banknote was depicted a group of warriors performing a traditional dance and a “Lave Lave” shield.

The  watermark was that of a Falcon landing.

The size of this Banknote was 77 mm x 155 mm and its colour was predominantly brown and deep orange.
                                                        A Lave Lave shield

Lave Lave shield: These shields were made of basket-work. They were elongated in shape and so strong and closely woven that they could easily turn a spear thrust. The same traditional pattern coloured black was made on most of them and ornamented with black, white or red patterns. They were used in traditional dances apart from being used during hostilities.

In 1986, a 50 dollar denomination of Banknote was introduced.

On the Front of the 50 dollar Banknote carrying the National Coat of Arms having a Crocodile and a Shark, was depicted a Ceremonial paddle and a Bonito hook. In the Centre background was “Bokolo” (used as money). “Tema”- Santa Cruz Island shell pendant “Kapkap”, food bowls carved in the shape of dogs. A Butterfly was marked as a registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the above 50 dollar Banknote was depicted a Pitcher, figurines, ceremonial spear, butterflies, reptiles and mushrooms.

The  watermark was that of a Falcon in flight landing.

The size of this Banknote was 80 mm x 160 mm and its colour was predominantly Blue-green and purple.

Commemorative Banknote (2001):

In 2001, a Commemorative Banknote in the 50 dollar denomination was issued titled “Bank of Solomon Islands – 25 Years”.

2006 Series of Banknotes:

The 2006 Series of Banknotes saw the introduction of several new Security features – brighter background colours, a micro-printed holofoil on the 50 and 100 dollar Banknotes, a tapered Serial number or “exploding font”, a security thread woven through the Banknote.

On the Front of a 2 dollar Banknote was depicted the Solomon Islands Flag on a flagpole. Towards the right hand side was the Solomon Islands Coat of Arms depicting a crocodile and a shark. Also seen on this face was a stylised Bonito fish, food bowl, two porpoises. “Bokolo” (used as money) and a bracelet were placed as a Registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the 2 dollar Banknote was a spear fishing scene and embellishments of Island “custom”artifacts.

The size of this Banknote was 70 mm x 140 mm and its colour was predominantly dark green.

Printing of this denomination of Banknotes was continued till 2011, when it was replaced by the 2 dollar coin in 2012.

Some prominent security features included a watermark which was that of an Eagle’s head in profile. The Electrotype was “CBSI” along with Reinforced cornerstones.

On the Front of the 10 dollar Banknote carrying the National Coat of Arms having a Crocodile and a Shark was seen stylised fish and Frigate Birds, Ceremonial bowl shaped like bird and fish (vessel in a bird’s back) called “Apira Ni Mwane”. Also depicted was a “Tema” (Santa Cruz Island shell pendant “Kapkap” and “Dafi” (engraved pearl shell gorget with Frigate bird overlay from Malaita Island) as a Registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the above 10 dollar Banknote was depicted “Poata” or “Shell money”. Also depicted on this Face was a woman hole-driller using a turtle shell fly wheel to drill holes in shell disks and beads.

The size of this Banknote was 72 mm x 149 mm and its colour was predominantly purple and violet.

Some prominent security features included a watermark which was that of an Eagle’s head in profile. The Electrotype was “CBSI” along with Reinforced cornerstones.

On the Front of the 20 dollar Banknote was depicted the Solomon Islands flag on a flag pole and the National Coat of Arms having a Crocodile and a Shark. Also depicted were a carved Bonito Fish and a Warrior Club (“Dala Kapkap”) and a Lave Lave Shield was marked as a registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the above 20 dollar Banknote was depicted a group of warriors performing a traditional dance and a “lave lave” shield.

The watermark was that of an eagle’s head in profile. The Electrotype was “CBSI” along with Reinforced cornerstones.

The size of this Banknote was 72 mm x 155 mm and its colour was predominantly brown and violet.

On the Front of the 50 dollar Banknote carrying the National Coat of Arms having a Crocodile and a Shark, was depicted a Solomon Islands Flag on a Flag pole. There was a Ceremonial paddle and a Bonito hook. In the Centre background was “Bokolo” (used as money). “Tema” Santa Cruz Island shell pendant “Kapkap”, food bowls carved in the shape of dogs. A Butterfly was marked as a registration device (security feature).

On the Back of the above 50 dollar Banknote was depicted a Pitcher, figurines, ceremonial spear, butterflies, reptiles and mushrooms.

The  watermark was that of an eagle’s head in profile. The Electrotype was “CBSI” along with Reinforced cornerstones.

The size of this Banknote was 72 mm x 161 mm and its colour was predominantly Green and purple.

In 2006, a 100 dollar Banknote was issued.

On the Front of the 100 dollar Banknote was depicted the Solomon Islands Flag on a flag pole. Towards the right hand side was the Solomon Islands Coat of Arms depicting a crocodile and a shark. Also seen on this face was a ceremonial paddle, coconut bunch, Frigate birds with spread wings.

 A trillium flower was placed as a Registration device (Security feature).

On the Back of the 100 dollar Banknote was shown a man climbing a palm tree plucking coconuts, some other coconut trees were shown. Another man was depicted as processing coconuts.

The size of this Banknote is 161 mm x 71 mm and its predominant colours were Brown, Red and Peach.

Some prominent security features included a Holographic security emblem depicting a “bokolo” (used as money) along with the Emblem/Coat of Arms of Solomon Islands. The watermark is that of an Eagle’s head in profile. The Electrotype is “CBSI” and Reinforced cornerstones.

New Series of Banknotes (introduced gradually wef September 2013 onwards over a period of five years ending 2018):

All these new Banknotes would depict scenes of traditional daily life and things that are culturally important to the islands with each Banknote focussed on a particular theme. These Banknotes will have strong images and bold colours to reflect the vibrancy of the Solomon Islands.

All these Banknotes would be printed by the currency printing major De La Rue as hithertobefore, as its Association with the Solomon Islands currency printing dates back to 1916.

On 26.09.2013, the Central Bank of the Solomon Islands introduced a new 50 dollar Banknote with the hybrid security features and began a process of introducing a new Series of Banknotes to be completed by 2018.
 The Front of the 50 Dollar Banknote with exploding fonts in the Serial Number.

On the Front of the 50 dollar Banknote, local basket weave designs are placed which represent the swirling movement of shoals of fish.

                 The Back of the 50 Dollar Banknote
On the Back of the 50 dollar Banknote, are depicted indigenous flora and fauna, including an Iguana, lizard and a snake. The serial numbers are in an "exploding font" variant in which succeeding Serial numbers are larger than the preceding ones as a counter-feiting safeguard feature.

Apart from the new security features mentioned above, the most prominent security feature is De La Rue’s Optiks, super wide security thread with a transparent window containing images of the shark and the crocodile from the National emblem as well as the numeral "50" denoting the denomination of this Banknote. This Optiks Technology was recognised in 2013 itself, when De La Rue received the Queen’s Award for Enterprise: Innovation for the thread and its associated paper making process.



The above is an image of the Front of a $100 Banknote which has been introduced in on 10.04.2015. The overall theme of this Banknote is rural life. Notice that the serial number of this Banknote is printed in order of “ascending fonts” or “exploding fonts”.

On the Front of the 100 dollar Banknote, there is an abstract pattern work based on a geometrical design and represents the swirling movement of shoals of fish.



The Back of the above $100 banknote

On the Back of the 100 dollar Banknote, images portraying rural livelihood, social and economic activities in rural Solomon Islands are depicted.

Again, like in the 50 dollars Banknote, the most prominent security feature is De La Rue’s Optiks, super wide security thread with a transparent window containing images of the shark and the crocodile from the National emblem as well as the numeral "100" denoting the denomination of this Banknote.

The Coat of Arms of the Solomon Islands: 

The Coat of Arms of the Solomon Islands consists of a shield which is supported by a Crocodile and a Shark. Over the shield is a helmet with decorations, crowned by a stylised sun.

The Components of the Shield are:

Armiger (meaning “A person entitled to heraldic Arms”): Elizabeth II, Queen of Solomon Islands.

Crest (meaning “Badge above the shield of a Coat of Arms”): On a helmet guardant, lambrequined Argent (meaning “silver”), and Azure (meaning sky-blue), a Solomon Islands war canoe proper and a Sun radiant Or (gold coloured).

Torse (meaning “A wreath”): Argent and Azure

Escutcheon (meaning “Shield with a Coat of Arms”): Or, a Saltire Vert charged with two spheres in saltire, points in base and a bow and two arrows charged with a native shield in fess point, between two turtles all proper, and on a chief Azure an Eagle sejant on a branch between two frigate birds all proper.

Supporters: On the Dexter (left hand side) a Crocodile and on the Sinister (right hand side) a shark, both proper.

Compartment (meaning “Division or Part divided off or a section”): A stylised two-headed Frigate bird Sable.

Motto: “To Lead Is To Serve”.



(The 50 and 100 dollar Banknotes issued in September 2013 and April 2015 respectively are from the collection of Jayant Biswas, procured during a recent visit to the USA. Post researched and written and Banknote scanned and uploaded by Rajeev Prasad)






Links:

Links to Posts on Australia, New Zealand and countries and Overseas Territories of the South Pacific on this blog:

1) Bank of Papua New Guinea: 36th Anniversary Celebrations (1973-2008): A Commemorative Uncirulated Coin Set consisting of a 2 Kina Banknote & a 2 Kina Coin

2) Papua New Guinea: An uncirculated coin set brought out in 1995 commemorating the 20th Anniversary of Independence 

 3) Currency & Coinage of the Soloman Islands: Dollars and Cents

4) New Zealand: New Banknote "Seventh Series" issued under Project "Brighter Money" from 2015 onwards

5) Coinage of the French Polynesian Island of Caledonia (or Nouvelle Caledonie) the CFP Franc  

6) French Institution for issuing uniform currency/coinage for French Overseas Territories in the Pacific and the French Southern Territories of Antarctica: The Institut d'emmission d'outre Mer (IEOM)

7) Currency & Coinage of Samoa: Tala and Sene 

8) Currency of the South Pacific Island Country of Fiji 

9) Coinage of New Zealand: A commemorative coin set issued in 1979 

10) Currency and Coinage of Australia: Dollars and Cents 

11) The Australian Emblem or the Coat of Arms 

12) The story of the Australian Penny 

13) The Legend of the Mutiny on the Bounty: A Commemorative Coin Set from the Pitcairn Islands depicting relics from the Bounty issued in 2009 

14) An Australian $5 coin issued in 1996, commemorating Australia's greatest cricketing legend - Sir Donald Bradman 

15) New Series/Generation of Australian Banknotes being introduced from 01.09.2016 onwards starting from $5 issues

British Crown Dependencies:

1) Specimen Banknotes from the States of Jersey

2) Coinage and Currency from the States of Jersey

3) Currency & Coinage of the Bailiwick of Guernsey

4) Currency & Coinage of Gibraltar : An Overseas Territory of Great Britain

5) Coinage of Gibraltar: (A British Overseas Territory): An Uncirculated Decimal Coin Collection Set minted by the Tower Mint, UK in 2010
  
6) The Isle of Man: An Uncirculated Decimal Coin Collection Set minted by Pobjoy Mint, UK in 2015

7) The Centenary of the ill-fated Titanic (15.04.1912 - 15.04.2012): An Alderney Five Pound Coin Commemorating the Maritime Legend

8) "Man of Steel": A Superman Movie: A set of stamps brought out in 2013 by Jersey post, the States of Jersey, commemorating Henry William Dalgliesh Cavill who played Superman in the Movie

9) Coins & Currency of Bermuda
Famous Battles

10) Bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's Exile to St. Helena: (Part I): A One Crown Commemorative coin issued by the Ascension Island (minted by Pobjoy Mint UK) 

11) Bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's Exile to st. Helena: (Part II) 1) A 5 GBP Coin issued by the Royal Mint UK. 2) A"Drie Landen Zilverset" ( ot the "Three Lands Silver set") containing coins issued by the Royal Dutch Mint including coins of Netherlands, Belgium and UK

12) Commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Britain by issuing a 50 Pence coin by the Royal Mint UK

Gold Coins:
  
13) Gold Sovereigns issued in 2013 & 2014 by MMTC-PAMP in India under licence from the Royal Mint, UK, carrying the "I" Mint Mark

14) Gold Half-Sovereigns minted by MMTC-PAMP in India in 2014 under licence from the Royal Mint UK bearing the "I" Mint Mark 

Silver Coins:

15) A 20 Pound Silver coin minted for the first timr by the royal Mint UK: reverse design carries the famous St. George slaying the dragon design found on Gold Sovereigns 

British India Coinage:

 16) East India Company Quarter Anna Copper Coin which is one of the first issues under the Coinage Act 1835

17) Victoria Coinage: When she was Queen and afterwards Empress

18) Edward VII: King & Emperor  Coinage

19) George V King Emperor Coinage

20) George VI: The last of the British India Emperors Coinage 

Other British Royalty: 

21) Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Celebrations (1952-2012): A Five Pound Commemorative coin issued by the Royal Mint, UK

22) Commemorating Queen Elizabeth II's Coronation in 1953: A Five Pound Coin minted by the Royal Mint UK in 2013, depicting the Imperial State Crown

23) The Royal Coat of Arms of the UK: Great British 2012 Coin Set (Uncirculated) issued by the Royal Mint UK

24) Prince George's Christening Ceremony celebrated with coins issued by the Royal Mint UK in 2013

25) The British Empire:  A Case of Numismatic "segregation": (Guest Post by Rahul Kumar)

26) 1) The Portrait Collection: Various Portraits of Queen Elizabeth II on Coinage 2) The Fourth & Final Circulating coinage of the Portrait designed by Ian Rank-Broadley and the First Edition of the portrait of the Queen made by Jody Clark

 British Coinage:

27) The contribution of the Great british One-Pound coins in keeping alive the historical legends/emblems/heritage of the UK (1983 onwards)

28) Transformation of a Five shilling Coin (Crown) into the UK Twenty-five Pence & then the Five Pound Coin

29) Transformation of the Two Shilling Coin (Florin) Coin into the UK Ten Pence

30) The 350th Anniversary of the Guinea: A Two Pound Coin issued by the Royal Mint UK celebrating the milestone

 Commemorative British Coinage:

 31) Commemorating the Bicentenary of Charles Dickens: A Two pound coin celebrating his literary contributions during the Victorian Era

 32) Commemorating 50 Years of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - presently called the World Wide Fund for Nature by issue of a Fifty Pence coin by the Royal Mint, UK

33) Coins commemorating London Olympics & Paralympics (2012)

34) Commemorating 150 Years of the London Underground : Two pound Coins minted by the Royal Mint UK, showing the "Roundel" logo and a train emerging from a tunnel 

35) Commemorating the 100th Birth anniversary of Christopher Ironside with his" Royal Arms" design on a 50 Pence coin issued by the Royal Mint, UK 

Inspirations from Scottish History: 

36) The Legend of King Bruce & the Spider on Banknotes

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