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Monday, 12 September 2016

374) Currency & Coinage of the Falkland Islands (or “Islas Malvinas”), a British Overseas Territory (BOT): Pound & Pence:



374) Currency & Coinage of the Falkland Islands (or “Islas Malvinas”), a British Overseas Territory (BOT): Pound & Pence:


The Pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, which is a British Overseas Territory (BOT) in the South Atlantic Ocean.

The Falklands pound is treated at par with the British Pound Sterling. While the Banknotes of both the UK and the Falkland Islands are freely interchangeable on the Falkland Islands, Banknotes issued by Banks in the UK are generally accepted in Great Britain & Falklands Islands currency is not accepted.

The Falkland Islands or “Islas Malvinas” (in Spanish):

The Falkland Islands or the Islas Malvinas (in Spanish – derived from the French term “Iles Malouines”) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean and the Patagonian Shelf comprising of an area of about 4,700 square miles (or about 12,000 square kms). The main islands are East Falklands, West Falklands and 776 smaller islands.

The Island’s capital is Stanley & the Falkland Islands have their internal self-governance, while the United Kingdom handles the Islands defence and foreign affairs. The Islands have around 3000 inhabitants the majority of whom are of British descent while the others are predominantly European, with a smattering of South Americans.

Under the British Nationality (Falklands Islands) Act 1983, the Islanders have been granted British citizenship.

The major economic activities of the Falkland Islands are – fishing, tourism and sheep farming.

Brief History of the Islands:

The earliest known travellers to the Island archipelago were the Fuegians from Patagonia during pre-historic times, but the islands remained uninhabited.

There were several unrecorded expeditions to the Islands and their efforts have been lost in the obscurity of history.

In 1592, an English sailing vessel “Desire”, landed on the Islands for the first time, under English sea-captain John Davis.

In 1690, the name “Falklands” was given to the islands by a subsequent English expeditionary force, after Anthony Cary. 5th Viscount of Falkland, (derived from the town of Falkland in Scotland which is derived from the Gaelic term “lann” referring to an “enclosure” or the Anglo-Saxon term “folkland” meaning “land held by “folk-right”) the Treasurer of the Navy who had sponsored this expedition.

In 1764, a French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville arrived at the Islands and named them “Iles Malouines”. Bougainville also founded the Island’s first settlement and named the area after the port of “Saint-Malo” (the sea-port where his ships and colonists had embarked on their sea-voyage).

In 1765, there was a flurry of activity in England and with a view to establish firm control over the Islands and not let it become a French colony, the English name “Falklands” was formally applied to the Islands, when another expeditionary force, claimed the Islands in the name of the British crown.

By 1766, another British vessel carrying colonists, established a colony at Port Egmont on Saunders Island.

Also, in 1766, France surrendered its claims over the Islands to Spain which renamed the French colony “Puerto Soledid”.

In 1770, Spain found out about the British colony at Egmont, and attacked and captured it.

In 1771, large-scale war was avoided by restitution of Port Egmont to the British.

Until 1774, both British and Spanish Settlements co-existed when economic and strategic considerations forced Britain to withdraw from the Islands leaving Spain’s Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata firmly in control of the Islands.

In 1806, during the Napoleonic wars, the British frequently attacked Rio de la Plata, with the result that the Spanish & other European civilians evacuated the Islands leaving only the Spanish garrisons on the Islands.

By 1811, the Spanish garrisons, which were wearing thin due to frequent enemy attacks, evacuated the Islands, leaving behind only a few local Argentineans and fishermen who stayed behind voluntarily.

By 1816, as the Islands were largely uninhabited, Argentina laid claim to the Spanish territories since the Islands had no permanent inhabitants.

In 1823, Argentina gave a German-born merchant Luis Vernet rights to conduct fishing activities and exploit the feral cattle in the Archipelago.

In 1826, Vernet settled at the ruins of Puerto Soledad and accumulated resources & made the Islands safe and attractive again for settlers to form a permanent colony.

In 1829, Argentina named Vernet the military & civil commander of the Islands. As part of his directives, he began regulating and stopping the activities of foreign whalers and sealers, including US fishermen.

In 1831, the USA sat up and took notice, despatching an American warship, whose commander declared the dissolution of the Island’s government.

In 1832, a British force reasserted British claim to the Islands which was opposed by the Argentine Confederation established on the Islands along with a small Argentine garrison.  Since then Argentina has been lodging regular protests against the British occupation of the Islands.

In 1840, the Falklands were again declared a British Crown Colony & some Scottish settlers came for settling there.

In 1845, Port Jackson was renamed Stanley and became the seat of government.

In 1965, the sovereignty dispute between Argentina & the United Kingdom was taken up by the United Nations Organisation (UNO), which passed a Resolution calling for both countries to conduct bilateral negotiations and peacefully settle the dispute.

From 1966 onwards, bilateral discussions led to an agreement on Trade ties between the Archipelago and the mainland and in 1972, a temporary airfield was built by Argentina at Stanley.

Nevertheless, Falklander’s dissent effectively limited the negotiations between the two countries, despite UK having seriously considered relinquishing their hold on the Islands to Argentina.

In April 1982, the bilateral discussions having made no headway led to an armed conflict, with Argentina invading the Falklands and other British territories in the South Atlantic, even briefly occupying the Islands until a British force retook possession. The Falklands Islands have ever since remained in British possession & an Air force Base has been established there.

In 1990, Argentina & the UK re-established diplomatic relations, which have since deteriorated, as the dispute has remained unresolved.

Historical Development of Falkland Islands Banknotes:

In 1829, 1, 5 and 10 Peso Promissory Notes were issued on the Falkland Islands (then called the Islas Malvinas) by Luis Vernet, a citizen of Argentina titled “CONCESIONARIO COMMANDANTE MILITARY POLITICO DE ISLAS MALVINAS”.

In 1833, the British Pound was introduced after the British reasserted their sovereignty on the Falkland Islands. Initially, the British currency circulated on the Islands, with the Pound sub-divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 Pence.

In 1842, crudely hand-written notes were issued and signed by the British Governor. This issue was limited to 1,000 Pounds worth of notes, yet the dollar was the unit of currency at that time. As such, a single hand-written note of 1 Shilling 8 Pence was issued to balance the books.

On 31.03.1845, all of the above Notes were redeemed except for about 3% of them, making these crudely hand-written notes, extremely rare collectibles.

Since 1899, Banknotes meant for the Falkland Islands have been the circulating currency.

From 1899 to 1916, the Banknotes were signed by hand and were uniface issues printed by Thomas De La Rue & Company Ltd, the Banknote paper and printing major. These were in the denomination of 5 and 10 Shillings and 1 and 5 Pounds. Earlier issues were dated by hand, whereas, the later issues bore printed dates. Some of these issues were perforated along the left edge, indicating that they were issued in booklets or with counterfoils.

From 1921-1932, the Front of the Banknotes depict a portrait of King George V facing left. These were in the denominations of 5 and 10 Shillings and 1 and 5 Pounds.

From 1938-1951, the Front of the Banknotes depict a portrait of George VI facing right. As such, the portrait was moved to the left of the Banknotes.

From 1960-1982, the Front of the Banknotes depict a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II facing left. As such her portrait was moved to the right of the Banknote.

(1969-1982 – Decimal issues):

Following decimalisation in 1971, the 10 shilling Banknote of the earlier issue became the new 50 Pence Banknote, though it retained its old design.   A new denomination of 10 Pounds was also introduced in 1975, followed by a 20 Pounds Banknote in 1984 and a 50 Pounds Banknote in 1990.

Commemorative issue – 16.06.1983:

On 14.06.1983, a 5 Pounds Banknote was issued to commemorate the 150th Anniversary of Britain’s control of the Falkland Islands.

On the Front, this commemorative 5 Pounds Banknote depicts a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Grand Duchess Vladimir’s tiara and Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee necklace. Also seen on this face are three King Penguins, two Sea Lions, Falkland Islands Coat of Arms and a Map of the Falkland Islands.

On the Back of this commemorative 5 Pounds Banknote is seen the Government House in Stanley and Christ Church Cathedral in Stanley.

The size of this Banknote was 145 mm x 75 mm. The colour of this Banknote was predominantly red.

Argentina has always claimed sovereignty of the islands and on 02.04.1982, its invasion of the Falkland Islands precipitated an undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom. After ten months, the Argentine forces withdrew leaving the territory in British control, nevertheless, Argentina continues to claim the sovereignty of the islands – present day.
1984-2011 issues:

These Banknotes are in the same style as the 5 Pound commemorative issue. This series discontinued the 50 Pence denomination Banknotes and introduced a new 50 Pound denomination. The denominations circulated in this series are 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Pounds.

On the Front of the One Pound Banknote are depicted three King Penguins, the Falkland Islands Coat of Arms and the Map of Falkland Islands. There is a portrait of Queen Elizabeth wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir’s tiara and Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee necklace. Also seen on this face of the Banknote are two Sea Lions.

On the Back of the One Pound Banknote is depicted the Government House and Christ Church Cathedral both in Stanley.

This Banknote bears no security thread.

The colour of this Banknote is predominantly blue and its size is 145 mm x 75 mm.

The Watermark is of the “F” pattern. The Printer is Thomas De La Rue (TDLR) who has printed this Banknote on behalf of the Falkland Islands Commissioner of Currency.

This Banknote was first issued on 01.10.1984.
                      The Government House in Stanley

Government House in Stanley:

The Government House in Stanley has been the home of the Falkland Islands’ UK appointed Governors since 1845. It was the site of a major battle between UK and Argentina during the Falklands War in 1982.
                Christ Church Cathedral in Stanley

Christ Church Cathedral:

Built with local stone and brick on Ross Road in Stanley, it is the Southernmost Anglican Cathedral in the World. It was built in 1890-1892 on the site of the Holy trinity Church, which was destroyed by the peat slip which destroyed part of Stanley in 1886.
It is the parish church of the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the British Antarctic Territories.


                   The Front of the 5 Pounds Banknote
On the Front of the Five Pounds Banknote are depicted three King Penguins, the Falkland Islands Coat of Arms and the Map of Falkland Islands. There is a portrait of Queen Elizabeth wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir’s tiara and Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee necklace. Also seen on this face of the Banknote are two Sea Lions.
                   The Back of the 5 Pounds Banknote

On the Back of the Five Pounds Banknote is depicted the Government House and Christ Church Cathedral both in Stanley.

This Banknote bears no security thread.

The colour of this Banknote is predominantly red and its size is 145 mm x 75 mm.

The Watermark is of the “F” pattern and has cornerstones. The Printer is Thomas De La Rue (TDLR) who has printed this Banknote on behalf of the Falkland Islands Commissioner of Currency.

This Banknote was first issued on 14.06.2005.
                   The Front of the 10 Pounds Banknote

On the Front of the Ten Pounds Banknote are depicted three King Penguins, the Falkland Islands Coat of Arms and the Map of Falkland Islands. There is a portrait of Queen Elizabeth wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir’s tiara and Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee necklace. Also seen on this face of the Banknote are two Sea Lions.
                               The Back of the 10 Pounds Banknote

On the Back of the Ten Pounds Banknote is depicted the Government House and Christ Church Cathedral both in Stanley.

This Banknote bears no security thread.

The colour of this Banknote is predominantly green and its size is 145 mm x 75 mm.

The Watermark is of the “F” pattern and has cornerstones wef 01.09.2012. The Printer is Thomas De La Rue (TDLR) who has printed this Banknote on behalf of the Falkland Islands Commissioner of Currency.

This Banknote was first issued on 01.01.2011.

On the Front of the Twenty Pounds Banknote are depicted three King Penguins, the Falkland Islands Coat of Arms and the Map of Falkland Islands. There is a portrait of Queen Elizabeth wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir’s tiara and Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee necklace. Also seen on this face of the Banknote are two Sea Lions.

On the Back of the Twenty Pounds Banknote is depicted the Government House and Christ Church Cathedral both in Stanley.

This Banknote bears no security thread.

The colour of this Banknote is predominantly brown and its size is 145 mm x 75 mm.

The Watermark is of the “F” pattern and has cornerstones wef 01.01.2011. The Printer is Thomas De La Rue (TDLR) who has printed this Banknote on behalf of the Falkland Islands Commissioner of Currency.

This Banknote was first issued on 01.10.1984.

On the Front of the Fifty Pounds Banknote are depicted three King Penguins, the Falkland Islands Coat of Arms and the Map of Falkland Islands. There is a portrait of Queen Elizabeth wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir’s tiara and Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee necklace. Also seen on this face of the Banknote are two Sea Lions.

On the Back of the Ten Pounds Banknote is depicted the Government House and Christ Church Cathedral both in Stanley.

This Banknote bears no security thread.

The colour of this Banknote is predominantly blue and its size is 145 mm x 75 mm.

The Watermark is of the “F” pattern. The Printer is Thomas De La Rue (TDLR) who has printed this Banknote on behalf of the Falkland Islands Commissioner of Currency.

This Banknote was first issued on 01.07.1990.

In 2010, an order was placed to TDLR to print 200,000 10 and 20 Pound Banknotes each which would be sufficient for use by the Islanders for the next 15 to 20 years.

Coins of the Falkland Islands:

In 1974, the denominations of ½, 1, 2, 5 and 10 Pence were introduced/circulated.

In 1980, 50 Pence coins were circulated.

In 1982, 20 Pence coins were introduced.

In 1983, the ½ Penny coin was last issued and demonetised.

In 1987, 1 Pound coins were issued.

In 1998, smaller versions of the 5, 10 and 50 Pence coins corresponding in size to the present British issues were circulated.

In 2004, a 2 Pound coin was put into circulation.
 The 8 coin set presently circulating in the Falkland Islands - 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 Pence & 1 and 2 Pounds

All these coins have the same composition and size as the corresponding British coins. They all depict the Queen’s bust on the Obverse and Falkland Island’s Fauna on the Reverse.

On the Obverse of all these coins is depicted a portrait of Queen Elizabeth facing left. The peripheral inscription reads “QUEEN ELIZABETH THE SECOND”.

On the Reverse of the 1 Penny coin is depicted a Gentoo Penguin.
                          A Gentoo Penguin

Gentoo Penguin (or “Pygoscelis papua”):

The Gentoo Penguin is one of three species in the genus Pygoscelis. The first scientific description was made by Johann Reinhold Forster in 1781 in reference to this species of Penguin found in the Falkland Islands.

The Gentoo Penguin is easily recognised by the wide white stripe extending like a bonnet across the top of its head and its bright orange bill. This Penguin has pale whitish-pink webbed feet and a rather long tail, which is the most prominent tail of all Penguins. Juveniles have grey backs with white fronts.

The Gentoo Penguin waddles along on land, with its tail sticking out behind, sweeping from side to side, hence the scientific name “Pygoscelis” (meaning “rump-tailed”).

Adult Gentoos can measure upto 51 to 90 cm (or 20 to 35 inches) in height, making them the third-largest species of Penguins after the two giant species – the Emperor Penguins and the King Penguins. Southern Gentoo Penguins can measure upto 75 to 80 cm (or 30-31 inches) in height. Gentoos are the fastest underwater swimming Penguins and can reach speeds of upto 36 km per hour. (or 22 Miles Per hour) and can adapt to very harsh cold climates.

Gentoos breed on many sub-Antarctic islands, the main ones being the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Kerguelen Islands, Macquarie Islands, Heard Islands, South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula.

Gentoos eat mainly crustaceans like krill as well as a smaller amount of fish. Sea-Lions, Leopard Seals and Killer Whales are predators of the Gentoo Penguin.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed Gentoos as “Near Threatened” (NT) due to a rapid decline in the species population.
                           Upland Geese

On the Reverse of the 2 Pence coin is depicted an Upland Goose.

Upland Goose (or “Chloephaga picta”):

The Upland Goose is a sheldgoose of the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Antidae, the biological family that includes ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as geese and swans. The Upland Goose is indigenous to the southern part of South America.

These birds are about 60-72.5 cm (or 23.6 to 28.5 inches) long and weigh about 2.7 to 3.2 kg (or 6 to 7 Pounds approx.)

Males have a white head and breast, whereas the females are brown with black-striped wings and yellow feet. There is a greenish-bronze speculum on the inner secondary flight feathers of the adult male.

The Upland Goose is primarily a herbivore feeding mostly on seeds, leaves, stems etc. They are extremely gregarious and thousands of birds can flock to pastures meant for cattle and sheep causing many a farmer nightmares.

They breed in dense-vegetated areas on plains or slopes from September to November on the Falkland Islands. Interestingly when the chicks are born, they take to a nearby water source or feeding area within a day and are able to feed themselves from birth, attaining maturity in about 3 years.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Conservation Status has listed them as being of “Least Concern” (LC).

On the Reverse of the 5 Pence coin is depicted a Black-browed Albatross.
                       Black Browed Albatross

The Black- browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris):

The Black-browed mollymawk is a single large seabird of the Albatross family Diomedeidae. The origin of the name “melanophris” comes from two Greek words – “melas” or “melanos” (meaning “black”) and “ophris” (meaning “eyebrow”).

The black-browed albatross is a medium-sized Albatross measuring about 80 to 95 cm (31 to 37 inches) long with a wingspan of 200 to 240 cm (or 79 to 94 inches). It weighs between 2.9 to 4.7 kg (or 6.4 to 10.4 pounds).

It can live over 70 years. The Albatross has a dark grey saddle and upperwings that contrast with the white rump and underparts. The underwing is predominantly white with broad, irregular, black margins. The bird has a dark eyebrow and a yellow-orange bill with a darker reddish-orange tip.

Juveniles have dark horn-coloured bills with dark tips and a grey head and collar. They also have dark underwings. The features that distinguish it from other mollymawks are the dark eye-stripe which gives it its name, abroad black edging to the white underside of its wings, white head and orange bill which is tipped dark orange.

The black-browed albatross feeds on fish, squid, crustaceans, carrion etc.

It reproduces in nests on steep slopes covered with tussock grass and sometimes on cliffs, however, on the Falkland Islands (where over 400,000 breeding pairs are known to be there), it nests on flat grassland on the coast. It is an annual breeder and lays up to one egg annually.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists this species as “Near threatened (NT)” due to a drastic reduction in population, due to increase in longline fishing and trawl fishing, which has resulted in black browed Albatross being identified as the most common bird being killed by the fishing lines.

Intensive Conservation efforts are on around the World and Heard Island, McDonald Island, Macquarie Island and the New Zealand Islands have been designated as World Heritage Sites for this purpose.

On the Reverse of the 10 Pence coin is depicted a South American Sea Lion.
              South American Sea Lion - Male with Female

South American Sea-Lion (or “Otaria flavescens”):

The South American sea Lion (also called the “Patagonian Sea Lion” or “Southern Sea Lion”) is found on the coasts of Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina and Southern Brazil. It is also known as “lobo or leon marino” (in Spanish) or “lobo or leao marinho” (in Portuguese).

The males (can grow over 2.73 metres or 9 feet and can weigh up to 350 kg or 770 pounds)  have a very large head with a well-developed mane & weigh twice the weight of females (can grow upto 1.8 to 2 metres or 6-7 feet and weigh upto 150 Kg or 330 pounds. Both males and females are orange or brown coloured with upturned snouts. The pups are born greyish orange ventrally and black dorsally and moult in a more chocolate colour.

This Sea Lion has notable breeding colonies in the Lobos Island, Uruguay, Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, Beagle Channel and the Falkland Islands.

They eat numerous species of fishes including the Argentine hake and anchovies. They also eat cephalopods like shortfin Squid, Patagonian Squid and Octopus. They can also eat penguins, pelicans and young South American fur Seals. They are predated by killer whales and sharks and are visited by common vampire bats as a source of blood.

The Moche people of Ancient Peru worshipped the Sea and its animals and often depicted South American sea Lions in their art. Two statues of the Sea Lion are the symbols of the city of Mar del Plata.

The present International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status is of “Least Concern” (LC) as their hunting has gone down considerably and their overall population is fairly stable.

On the Reverse of the 20 Pence coin is depicted a Sheep.

On the Reverse of the 50 Pence coin is depicted a Warrah.

The Falkland Islands Wolf (or “Dusicyon australis”) or Warrah:
 An illustration of the Warrah made by Charles Darwin during his voyage on the Beagle

The Warrah is also known as the Falkland Islands dog or Falkland Islands Fox or Antarctic Wolf. Warrah is derived from the word “aguara” in Guarani, a South American language meaning “fox”, because of its similarity to the maned wolf “aguara guazu”. Interestingly, a literal translation of the warrah’s Latin name is “foolish dog of the South”.

On the Reverse of the 1 Pound coin is depicted the Coat of Arms of the Falkland Islands.

On the Reverse of the 2 Pounds coin is depicted the Map of the Falkland Islands.

Coat of Arms of the Falkland Islands:
                     Coat of Arms - Falkland Islands

The Coat of Arms of the Falkland Islands was adopted on 29.09.1948.

The description reads:

Escutcheon: Per Fess azure (blue) and barry wavy argent (silver) and azure (blue), in chief a ram proper upon a grassy mount issuant from the division vert, and in base a galley proper, its mainsail charged with four torts in cross.

Motto: “Desire the Right”.

Further Explanation:

The Coat of Arms consists of a shield containing a ram on tussock grass in the field with a sailing ship underneath. The motto of the Falklands Islands is given further below “Desire the Right”. The ship represents the “Desire”, which was the vessel in which the first lot of English sailors had landed on the Falkland Islands in 1592, under their captain John Davis.

The ram represents sheep farming which has traditionally been the mainstay of Falkland Islands economy. The tussock grass is the most prominent Falkland Islands vegetation.







(The above Banknotes are from the collection of Jayant Biswas. Post researched & written by Rajeev Prasad)









Links:

Bank of England Banknotes:

1) A Ten Pounds Banknote issued on Charles Dickens (Writer) also depicting a cricket match from his novel "The Pickwick Papers"

2) A Ten Pound Banknote issued on Charles Darwin (English Naturalist) also depicting the HMS Beagle, Darwin's magnifying glass, a humming-bird & flora that he may have seen on his voyage.

3) A Five Pounds Banknote issued on George Stephenson (an Engineer) also depicting "Rocket" his Railway Locomotive and Skeene Bridge on theStockton Darlington Railway (1825) - since withdrawn

4) A 20 Pounds Banknote issued on Michael Faraday (a Scientist) issued in 1991, since withdrawn from circulation in 2001 

Inspirations from Scottish History (Clydesdale Bank Banknotes): 

1) The Legend of King Bruce & the Spider on Banknotes

Banknotes from Bank of Scotland:
  
1) Commemorating Sir William Arrol and his creation the Forth Rail Bridge by issues of Britain's first ever 5 Pound Polymer Banknote

2) The Ryder Cup Commemorative Banknote: A 5 Pounds Banknote issued by the Royal Bank of Scotland in 2014 

British Crown Dependencies:

1) Specimen Banknotes from the States of Jersey

2) Coinage and Currency from the States of Jersey

3) Currency & Coinage of the Bailiwick of Guernsey

4) Currency & Coinage of Gibraltar : An Overseas Territory of Great Britain

5) Coinage of Gibraltar: (A British Overseas Territory): An Uncirculated Decimal Coin Collection Set minted by the Tower Mint, UK in 2010
  
6) The Isle of Man: An Uncirculated Decimal Coin Collection Set minted by Pobjoy Mint, UK in 2015

7) The Centenary of the ill-fated Titanic (15.04.1912 - 15.04.2012): An Alderney Five Pound Coin Commemorating the Maritime Legend

8) "Man of Steel": A Superman Movie: A set of stamps brought out in 2013 by Jersey post, the States of Jersey, commemorating Henry William Dalgliesh Cavill who played Superman in the Movie

9) Coins & Currency of Bermuda

10) The Bailiwick of Jersey - Presently circulating coinage - Pounds and Pence 

11) St. Helena & Ascension Islands: An Uncirculated Coin Set from 2003 

12) The Legend of the "HMAV Bounty" is interwoven with the heritage of the Pitcairn Islands: An uncirculated coin set from Pitcairn Islands in 2009 depicting the icons/relics of the Bounty minted by the New Zealand Mint

13) Currency of the Falkland Islands: A British Overseas Territory (BOT) Pounds & Pence

Famous Battles

1) Bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's Exile to St. Helena: (Part I): A One Crown Commemorative coin issued by the Ascension Island (minted by Pobjoy Mint UK) 

2) Bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's Exile to st. Helena: (Part II) 1) A 5 GBP Coin issued by the Royal Mint UK. 2) A"Drie Landen Zilverset" ( ot the "Three Lands Silver set") containing coins issued by the Royal Dutch Mint including coins of Netherlands, Belgium and UK

3) Commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Britain by issuing a 50 Pence coin by the Royal Mint UK

Gold Coins:
  
1) Gold Sovereigns issued in 2013 & 2014 by MMTC-PAMP in India under licence from the Royal Mint, UK, carrying the "I" Mint Mark

2) Gold Half-Sovereigns minted by MMTC-PAMP in India in 2014 under licence from the Royal Mint UK bearing the "I" Mint Mark 

Silver Coins:

1) A 20 Pound Silver coin minted for the first timr by the royal Mint UK: reverse design carries the famous St. George slaying the dragon design found on Gold Sovereigns 

British India Coinage:

 1) East India Company Quarter Anna Copper Coin which is one of the first issues under the Coinage Act 1835

2) Victoria Coinage: When she was Queen and afterwards Empress

3) Edward VII: King & Emperor  Coinage

4) George V King Emperor Coinage

5) George VI: The last of the British India Emperors Coinage 

Other British Royalty: 

1) Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Celebrations (1952-2012): A Five Pound Commemorative coin issued by the Royal Mint, UK

2) Commemorating Queen Elizabeth II's Coronation in 1953: A Five Pound Coin minted by the Royal Mint UK in 2013, depicting the Imperial State Crown

3) The Royal Coat of Arms of the UK: Great British 2012 Coin Set (Uncirculated) issued by the Royal Mint UK

4) Prince George's Christening Ceremony celebrated with coins issued by the Royal Mint UK in 2013

5) The British Empire:  A Case of Numismatic "segregation": (Guest Post by Rahul Kumar)

6) 1) The Portrait Collection: Various Portraits of Queen Elizabeth II on Coinage 2) The Fourth & Final Circulating coinage of the Portrait designed by Ian Rank-Broadley and the First Edition of the portrait of the Queen made by Jody Clark

 British Coinage:

1) The contribution of the Great British One-Pound coins in keeping alive the historical legends/emblems/heritage of the UK (1983 onwards)

2) Transformation of a Five shilling Coin (Crown) into the UK Twenty-five Pence & then the Five Pound Coin

3) Transformation of the Two Shilling Coin (Florin) Coin into the UK Ten Pence

4) The 350th Anniversary of the Guinea: A Two Pound Coin issued by the Royal Mint UK celebrating the milestone

 Commemorative British Coinage:

 1) Commemorating the Bicentenary of Charles Dickens: A Two pound coin celebrating his literary contributions during the Victorian Era

 2) Commemorating 50 Years of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - presently called the World Wide Fund for Nature by issue of a Fifty Pence coin by the Royal Mint, UK

3) Coins commemorating London Olympics & Paralympics (2012)

4) Commemorating 150 Years of the London Underground : Two pound Coins minted by the Royal Mint UK, showing the "Roundel" logo and a train emerging from a tunnel 

5) Commemorating the 100th Birth anniversary of Christopher Ironside with his" Royal Arms" design on a 50 Pence coin issued by the Royal Mint, UK 

6) 800th Anniversary of the Magna Carta - the Universal Guidepost to Liberty and Freedom



4 comments:

  1. Satyajit Pratap has commented:
    "Can't forget the Falklands war ....my interview Q in SBI .."

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes, Satyajit. The British warships vs the Argentinian Air Force with their EXOCET missiles landing on the Royal Navy. I particularly remember that one missile went right into the middle of a warship, (I think it was the "HMS Sheffield") but did not explode or it would have ripped the whole ship to pieces & this may have changed the course of the War.

      Delete
  2. Interesting. Thank you for sharing this information. I do have popular Eisenhower Coins for Sale

    ReplyDelete