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Saturday, 18 October 2014

153) Commemorating the 225th Anniversary of the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS): Coins issued by the U.S. Mint in 2015:

153) Commemorating the 225th Anniversary of the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS): Coins issued by the U.S. Mint in 2015:

We have all grown up during our formative years in the 1970s watching “Westerns”, particularly during a period when Television was yet to be introduced in India. Western heroes like Gregory Peck, Omar Sharif, Lee Marvin, Yul Brynner, Donald Sutherland, Clint Eastwood, John Wayne, Lee Van Cliff, Eli Wallach, Charles Bronson, Telly Savalas etc. and movies like “The Dirty Dozen”, “The Good, the Bad, the Ugly”, “McKenna’s Gold” we were familiar with & we never tired of watching these movies several times over.
 We were as familiar with the “Old West/Wild West ” terms – Homesteads, Cowboys, Ranches, Sheriffs, Marshals, Deputies, Posses, Outlaws (Billy the Kid, Jesse James, Clanton Brothers etc.), lynching, Stage Coach and Railroad robberies and Western genre writers like James Fennimore Cooper, Zane Grey, Louis L’amour etc. as perhaps any US citizen/resident during this era. My collection of Comics included The Cartwright Brothers (Bonanza) & Western frontiersmen – Daniel Boone, Kit Carson, David "Davy" Crockett, Jim Bowie etc.

 In fact, I almost had  the entire “Sudden” (or James Green Series) written by Oliver Strange in the 1930s and revived by Frederick H. Christian in the 1960s. Sudden in one of the fictional stories titled “Sudden“ was made a U.S. Dy. Marshal by the Governor of Arizona and sent on undercover missions to maintain law and order.

Although the U.S. Mint is no longer shipping Coins to India, I could not resist doing this post, when I learnt that the Mint is commemorating the 225th Anniversary of the U.S. Marshals Service through coins.

The United States Marshals Service (USMS) was envisaged under the Judicial Act of 1789, as a U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agency within the Department of Justice. As such, it is the oldest U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agency established on 24.09.1789 with 13 U.S. Marshals (one each for the 13 States which had joined the American Federation).

The USMS took its current name in 1969.

Duties and functions of the U.S.M.S.:

 As the oldest and most versatile Federal Law Enforcement Agency in the USA, the USMS is involved in virtually every Federal law enforcement initiative.

Its primary function was to execute all lawful warrants issued under the authority of the United States. The US Marshals status is that of officers of the courts charged with assisting federal courts in their law-enforcement functions.

U.S. Marshals duties and responsibilities during the settlement of the American West or “Wild West” days:

During the settlement of the American West or “Wild West” days, Marshals were tasked with day to day law enforcement in various parts of the West which had no local government of their own.

Marshals were permitted to recruit special deputies as local hires or as temporary transfers to the Marshals’ Service from other Federal law-enforcement agencies. They were also authorised to swear in a posse to assist with hunting down outlaws and criminal elements including counterfeiters and other such duties on an ad hoc basis. Marshals were given extensive authority to support the Federal Courts within their judicial districts and to carry out all lawful orders issued by Federal judges, Congress and the US President.

The Marshals and their deputies served writs – subpoenas, summonses and warrants etc. issued by the Courts. They were charged with making arrests and handling all federal prisoners. They disbursed funds as ordered by the courts, paid the fees and expenses of court clerks, U.S.Attorneys, jurors and witnesses etc. They were also instrumental in renting out courtrooms and jail space and hired bailiffs, criers and janitors for cleaning up the court rooms etc.

 Even later on, when specialised Federal Agencies such as customs and revenue collectors for collecting taxes and tariffs were established the workload on the US Marshals increased as the Marshals and their deputies were the only officers available to these Agencies to enforce the law vis-à-vis the tax/tariff collection on the ground and to go after the defaulters.

 Interestingly, Marshals were not paid a regular salary and were paid 10% of the tax/tariff collections made by them. Similarly for other duties performed by them, they were only entitled to fees for arranging Court room space, janitor services, carrying out executions of convicted felons etc. It was only on 01.07.1896, that the fee/percentage of collections system of paying Marshals was abolished and Marshals were put on annual salary.

Even miscellaneous tasks, such as taking the National Census in 1870 and once every 10 years thereafter, distribution of presidential proclamations, collecting statistical information and names of government employees and residents of the area were also performed by them.

Several Dy. Marshals in the American West are remembered as legendary heroes who brought about a semblance of order in the face of rampant lawlessness when the West was settled.

Some notable services provided by the U.S. Marshals during the “Wild West” era:

During the American Revolution, several U.S. Marshals participated with distinction in the military service.

In August 1794, a Supreme Court Justice certified that the Whiskey Rebels were too powerful to be suppressed by the Marshal in the District. Accordingly, President Washington called out the state militia to march against the Whiskey rebels. U.S. Marshal David Lennox rode with the militia, under the command of President Washington himself. This is the only time in U.S. history that a President had taken the field at the head of his army.

Upon passage of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, by Congress, one of the jobs that fell upon the U.S. Marshals was the “recovery” of fugitive slaves.  U.S. Marshals enforced the Act by arresting fugitive slaves and returning them to their Southern masters. Marshals were permitted to form a posse and to deputize any person to aid in the recapture of fugitive slaves. Failure to cooperate with a Marshal resulted in a fine of $5000 and imprisonment.

The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue was a famous fugitive slave case where James Batchelder was the second Marshal to be killed while preventing the rescue of a fugitive slave in Boston in 1854.

During the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) U.S. Marshals confiscated property used to support the Confederacy and helped locate and arrest Confederate spies.

In 1872, U.S. Marshals assisted Internal Revenue Agents (who had no arrest powers) in enforcing the whiskey tax laws.

Between 1865 and 1900, U.S. Marshals were instrumental in keeping law and order in the “Old West” era and apprehending the infamous Dalton Brothers Gang (a group of outlaws during 1890-1892 specialising in bank and train robberies), William “Bill” Doolin (Bandit and founder of the Wild Bunch – an outlaw gang specialising in robbing banks, trains and stagecoaches in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Kansas in the 1890s) and Ned Christie (also known as NeDe WaDe in Cherokee was a member of the executive council in the Cherokee Nation senate & an advisor to Chief Bushyhead. He held off U.S. lawmen in the so-called “Ned Christie’s War” after being wrongfully accused of murdering a U.S. Marshal & being declared an outlaw. He was killed in the shoot-out, however, Christie’s name was later cleared when a witness testified that it was another man who had killed the Marshal. This incident was a blot on the U.S. Marshals Service) and helped put down the Pullman Strike in 1894 (This was a nationwide railroad strike which pitted the American Railway Union against the Pullman Company, the main railroads and the Federal Government of the U.S.A.).

Some well-known Marshals of this and later period have been:

Wild Bill Hickok (Dy. Marshal Fort Riley, Kansas), Bass Reeves (one of the first Black men to receive a commission as U.S. Dy. Marshal, West of the Mississippi River. During his service he arrested over 3000 felons and shot and killed 14 felons in self-defence - the fictional character "The Lone Ranger" was closely based on his exploits), Wyatt Earp, Virgil Earp & Morgan Earp (Dy. U.S. Marshals, Tombstone, Arizona – Wyatt & his Associates challenged the Clanton and McLaury brothers at the O.K. Corral), William “Bat” Masterton (Dy. U.S. Marshal Kansas & Southern Distt. New York), Dallas Stoudenmire (U.S. Marshal who tamed a remote, wild and violent town of El Paso, Texas), Richard Griffith (U.S. Dy. Marshal who rose to the position of Brigadier General in the Confederacy during the US Civil War), Benjamin McCulloch (U.S. Marshal for Eastern district of Texas & later Brigadier General in the Confederate army during the American Civil War), Ward Hill Lamon (U.S. Marshal & Bodyguard of President Abraham Lincoln), Heck Thomas, Bill Tilghman and Chris Madsen (the legendary “Three Guardsmen” of the Oklahoma Territory), Cal Whitson (one-eyed Dy. Marshal for Oklahoma Territory & “Rooster Cogburn” of the novel and film “True Grit”), John W. Marshall (U.S. Marshal for Eastern district of Virginia & First African-American to serve as Director of the U.S. Marshals Service from 1999 to 2001), Phoebe Couzins (first woman to be appointed in the USMS) etc.

Present system of U.S. Marshals Service (USMS):

In 1965, the Executive Office for the United States Marshals was set up as an Apex Organisation to monitor/supervise the U.S. Marshals countrywide.

In 1969, the USMS was designated as a Federal Agency which superseded the Executive Office for US Marshals.

The U.S. Marshals Service Headquarters is based in Arlington, Virginia and is headed by a Director. It provides command, control and cooperation for the various disciplines of the Service.

The U.S. court system is divided into 94 federal judicial districts, each with a district court. For each district there is a U.S. Marshal, a Chief Dy. U.S. Marshal, Asstt. Chief Dy. U.S. Marshal for larger Districts, several Dy. U.S. Marshals and Special Dy. U.S. Marshals.  There are presently about 100 U.S. Marshals and more than 4000 Dy. U.S. Marshals, Spl. Dy. U.S. Marshals, Inspectors and criminal investigators etc. In addition there are about 5000 Court Security Officers (CSOs) and a similar number of Detention Enforcement Officers (DEOs), all dedicated to carrying out missions for apprehending fugitives, housing and transporting prisoners, protecting witnesses and Federal judges, managing and selling assets.

The Director and each U.S. Marshal of a District are appointed by the President of the U.S.A. from a list of qualified law enforcement personnel for that district. The appointments of the Director and all Marshals and other ranks are done under authority of the U.S. President and confirmed by the Senate.

The U.S. Marshals are no longer required to serve process in private civil actions filed in the U.S. District courts, except for in suits by jailed persons, non-prisoner litigants etc.

Today the Marshals Service is tasked with the job of apprehending wanted fugitives, providing protection for the Federal judiciary, transporting federal prisoners, protecting endangered federal witnesses and managing assets seized from criminal enterprises.

The USMS executes all lawful writs, processes and orders issued under U.S. authority. Even today, the U.S. Marshals have the power to deputise willing citizens (in the Wild West this was the equivalent of forming a posse). The U.S. Marshals are also authorised to exercise the powers of a sheriff of the State.

The Witness Protection/Security Programme was established after the passage of the Organised Crime Control Act 1970. (Senior Dy. U.S. Marshals assigned to Witness Protection Programme are given the title of Inspector).

There is a Special Operations Group (SOG) which is a highly trained tactical unit which is a self-supporting response team capable of responding to emergencies anywhere in the U.S. or its territories.

Some notable services provided by the U.S. Marshals after the “Old/Wild West era”:

Marshals enforced Prohibition in the 1920s and were in the front lines of the civil rights movement in the 1960s, protecting volunteers.

In September 1962, about 127 marshals accompanied James Meredith, an African American who wanted to join at the segregated University of Mississippi “Ole Miss”, where despite a riot-like situation where several projectiles were hurled at the Marshals, they acquitted themselves admirably and continued to provide him protection during the first year of his studies at the University.

 U.S. Marshals also provided protection to Ruby Bridges when she was one of the first students to integrate the New Orleans Public Schools.   

In the South, U.S. Marshals continuously provided protection to black schoolchildren and were instrumental in integrating public schools in the South.

Marshals nowadays carry out missions for registering enemy aliens in wartime, sealing the American border against armed expeditions from foreign countries, swapping spies with the USSR during the Cold War etc.

In 1981, the U.S. Marshals Service started the Fugitive Investigative Strike Teams (FIST) operations to capture violent fugitives wanted by Federal and local law enforcement Agencies.

In 1983, the 15 Most Wanted Fugitive Programme was established to prioritize investigation and apprehension of high-profile offenders including murderers, major drug kingpins, organised crime leaders and financial embezzlers.

In 1985, the Major Case Fugitive Programme was established to supplement to 15 Most Wanted Fugitive Program. The Major Case Fugitive Program prioritizes the investigation and apprehension of high profile offenders and escapees from custody.

In 2005, Operation FALCON (Federal And Local Cops Organised Nationally) was commenced which was conducted in several phases thereafter, resulting in the arrests of thousands of fugitives.

In 2006, the Fugitive Safe Surrender Programme was introduced which encourages persons wanted for non-violent felony or misdemeanour crimes to surrender voluntarily to the law in a faith-based or other neutral setting. The USMS manages this programme as a community re-entry programme for wanted non-violent offenders. The surrendering person’s cases are tried in a safe and non-violent environment without any threat to the fugitives themselves.

In 2012, U.S. Marshals captured over 36000 federal fugitives and cleared over 39000 warrants.

Marshals killed in the line of Duty:

More than 250 U.S. Marshals, Dy. Marshals and Special Dy. Marshals have died in the line of duty.

The first U.S. Marshal to be killed was Robert Forsyth who was shot dead while serving court papers in Augusta, Georgia on the Allen Brothers on 11.01.1794.

These U.S. Marshals are remembered on an Honour Roll permanently displayed at the Headquarters.

The U.S.Marshals Seal:

                       Variants of the US Marshals seal
 The USMS Seal was designed in October 1966 by U.S. Marshal Robert Morey of Massachusetts.

The Seal contains a six-pointed star, surrounded by a field of deep blue which colour represents vigilance, perseverance and justice.

Over the badge is an American bald eagle that clutches the two familiar symbols in its talons as found in the Great Seal of the USA – an olive branch in one and arrows in the other talon.

A small breast-plate is superimposed over the eagle which shows all three colours of the US Flag and the year “1789”, which was the first year of the Agency’s existence.

On the outer periphery is a red ring, which symbolises courage and bloodshed in carrying out duties by a Marshal.

Towards the top half of the Seal are 13 Stars which represent the 13 original States which had joined the US Federation in the late 18th century. At the bottom half is depicted the Agency’s motto “Justice, Integrity, Service”.

A gold coloured ring, again placed towards the outer periphery bears the inscription “DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE” on the upper portion and “UNITED STATES MARSHAL” on the lower section. The outer edge is brown which signifies the Earth.

Commemorating the U.S. Marshals contribution over the years:

1)The Frontier Marshal statue:

For the commemoration of the Bicentennial of the U.S. Marshal’s Service in 1989, a larger than life 10-foot tall bronze sculpture titled “Frontier Marshal” created by Dave Manuel of Joseph, Arizona who specialises in paintings and sculptures with western themes. The bronze statue depicts a dignified U.S. Marshal, holding a 10 gallon hat and court papers in one hand and the other rests on his gun belt. The long duster coat is pulled back to reveal his pistol in the holster on the gun belt.

 The statue was commissioned and given to the Marshal Service by John Bianchi. The sculpture stands as a reminder of the yeoman services and sacrifices of the U.S. Marshals over the more than two centuries of its existence.

In real life, the sobriquet of being the “last of the Frontier Marshals” goes to Robert E. Clark who served as U.S. Marshal for the Southern District of California from 1933 to 1948.

2)Movie inspired by U.S. Marshals:

In 1998, a film “U.S. Marshals” which was a sequel to the 1993 movie “The Fugitive” (based on the 1960s T.V. series of the same name) was released starring Tommy Lee Jones, Wesley Snipes and Robert Downey Jr. The storyline centres on a fugitive who attempts to elude government officials in an International conspiracy scandal with the Dy. Marshals in pursuit. 
3)Coins Commemorating the 225th Anniversary of the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS):

In 2012, the U.S. Marshals Service 225th Anniversary Commemorative Coin Act was enacted.

Under this Act three coins were required to be minted in Proof and Uncirculated varieties – a $5.00 quarter ounce gold coin (mintage upto 100000 pieces), a $1.00 silver dollar (mintage upto 500000 pieces) and a half-dollar clad coin (mintage upto 750000 pieces), commemorating the dedication and achievements of the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) over its 225 years of existence. The 225th Anniversary fell on 24.09.2014 on which date a few samples were released.

The $5.00 gold coin commemorates the more than 250 Marshals and Deputy Marshals killed during service in the line of duty.
An image of the present U.S. Marshal's badge carried on the Obverse face of the coin.
The Obverse face of the coin carries the current badge of the U.S. Marshals. Mentioned across the badge is the motto “IN GOD WE TRUST”. On the upper periphery of the coin are depicted the Anniversary years “1789” & “2014” representing the years the USMS has been in existence. On the lower periphery of this face is mentioned “225 Years of Sacrifice”.

The Reverse face of the coin depicts an eagle with a shield on its chest inscribed “U.S. Marshal”. The denomination of the coin “$5” is mentioned towards the right hand bottom with the Agency’s motto “JUSTICE, INTEGRITY, SERVICE” featuring on the bottom left periphery of this face along with the motto “E.PLURIBUS UNUM” (Out of Many One).

The $1.00 silver coin depicts the USMS’s “Frontier history” and commemorates the U.S. Marshals legendary status in America’s cultural landscape.

The Obverse face shows Five Frontier Dy. U.S. Marshals/posse on horseback riding on a trail, with an image of a historic U.S. Marshals badge in the background. On the upper periphery are mentioned “Liberty” and the commemorative years “1788-2014”. On the lower periphery is mentioned the motto “IN GOD WE TRUST” and the year of issue “2015”.

The Reverse face shows a Frontier Marshal holding a wanted poster which reads “Wanted in Ft. Smith” (Fort Smith, Arkansas is the future home of the U.S. Marshals Museum). The denomination of the coin “$1” is mentioned towards the right hand bottom with the Agency’s motto “JUSTICE, INTEGRITY, SERVICE” featuring on the upper periphery of this face along with the motto “E.PLURIBUS UNUM” (Out of Many One) on the upper left side.

The half-dollar clad coin portrays the dedicated services of the US Marshals over time through some of the most significant events/missions in US history and the role of the USMS in shaping the Nation.

The Obverse face shows a present day female Dy. U.S. Marshal in the foreground and an “Old West” U.S. Marshal in the background. On the upper periphery are mentioned “Liberty” and the commemorative years “1788-2014” and are in the centre. On the lower periphery/half is mentioned the motto “IN GOD WE TRUST” and the year of issue “2015”.

The Reverse face of this coin is one of the most interesting designs with aspects of the “Old West” integrating beautifully with recent events in the USMS history. A blindfolded Lady Justice holds the scales of Justice in one hand and holds a U.S. Marshal’s badge in the other (Representing that Justice will be done by the U.S. Marshals) A copy of the US Constitution starting with “We the People__” (Representing the Rule of Law and equality & freedom for all). The other symbols represent the Whiskey Rebellion (symbolised with a closed vat/jug), the role played by the Marshals in putting down the Pullman Strike (represented by the Railroad), Freedom from bondage for which the US Civil War was fought (represented by the unfettered/loose cuffs), Public school integration (represented by books – education). The denomination of the coin “Half Dollar” is mentioned towards the right hand periphery. The motto “E.PLURIBUS UNUM” (Out of Many One) on figures between the scales.

4)Big League Cards:

In the 1990s, the USMS brought out a series of “Sports Cards” commemorating notable Marshals and Dy. Marshals who served during various periods of the Service’s existence, designed by Big League Cards.

Some of the Cards brought out were:

John Abernathy, U.S. Marshal, Oklahoma Territory (1906-1910): famed for capturing hundreds of wolves without having to kill them. He had developed a technique by jamming his hands down the wolves throats to prevent them from attacking him.

John Brooks, U.S. Marshal, Distt. Of Massachusetts (1791-1796):

He joined the U.S. Revolutionary War and rose to be elected as Governor of Massachusetts in 1816.

Al Butler, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Distt. Of Columbia & Maryland (1958-1975):

He helped change America by desegregating schools in the American South.

Ada Carnutt, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Oklahoma Territory, (1863):

One of the first women to wear a Dy. Marshal’s badge, she arrested two forgers and personally escorted them to jail.

Lewis Cass, U.S. Marshal, District of Ohio (1807-1813):

He rose to the position of Brigadier General during the War of 1812, and held several positions as Governor, Senator from Michigan, Secretary of War, Minister to France and Secretary of State.

Charles Devens, U.S. Marshal, Distt. Of Massachusetts (1850-1853):

A Harvard graduate, he fought for the Union during the U.S. Civil War and was wounded twice in battle. In 1877, he rose to the position of Attorney General.

Frederick Douglass, U.S. Marshal, Distt. Of Columbia (1877-1881):

He was one of the best known opponents of slavery and a leader in the abolitionist cause. He was the first African-American to be appointed to the post of U.S. Marshal.

Wyatt Earp, Dy. U.S. Marshal, District of Arizona (1882):

In 1881, Wyatt and 3 other associates challenged the Clanton and McLaury brothers at the O.K. Corral. This action has been recreated in an Action Movie “Gunfight at O.K. Corral”. Wyatt is regarded as a popular American hero.

Robert Forsyth, U.S. Marshal, District of Georgia (1789-1794):

He fought for the U.S. in the Revolutionary war. He became the first U.S. Marshal of Georgia in 1789. In 1794, he became the first U.S. Marshal to be killed in the line of duty.

Katherine Battle Gordy, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Southern Distt. Of Alabama (1936-1952):

 She served as a Dy. U.S. Marshal for 16 years and acted temporarily as the first woman U.S. Marshal in 1949.

Ward Hill Lamon, U.S. Marshal, Distt. Of Columbia (1861-1866):

He was Abraham Lincoln’s law partner and was appointed as U.S. Marshal for the capital and was tasked with protecting Lincoln. On 13.04.1865, he was sent to Richmond VA and Lincoln was assassinated on the following night in Washington D.C.

Chris Madsen, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Oklahoma Territories (1891-1911):

Chris Madsen, Bill Tilghman and Heck Thomas were nicknamed the “Three Guardsmen of Oklahoma”, because of their dedication to establishing law & order in the Indian and Oklahoma territories.

George Maledon, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Western District of Arkansas (1874-1894):

He was nicknamed the “Prince of Hangmen” because he served as “Hanging Judge” Isaac Parker’s chief executioner responsible for the hangings of 60 of the 79 men sentenced to death by Parker.

William “Bat” Matterson, Dy. U.S. Marshal Kansas, Southern District of New York (1879-1881, 1905-1909):

He was Sheriff and Dy. U.S. Marshal of Kansas before he shifted to Arizona. He was an Indian fighter and known for his dandy dress and for being an excellent shot.

James J.P. Mcshane, Chief, U.S. Marshals Service (1962-1968):

He carried out Federal Court orders to desegregate the American South and protected those who marched with Martin Luther King from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.

David Neagle, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Northern District of California (1889):

He shot & killed David Terry who attacked a Supreme Court Justice. Neagle was arrested for murder and released after a landmark case that set precedents for and defined the power of the Executive branch of the US Government.

Evitt Dumas Nix, U.S. Marshal, Oklahoma Territory (1893-1896):

He supervised the work of more than 150 Deputies, including the famous “Three Guardsmen” and his men made several arrests to maintain law & order in the supervised territories.

Pablo de La Guerray Noriega, U.S. Marshal, Southern Districh of California (1850-1854):

He was the first Hispanic appointed as a U.S. Marshal and the first U.S. Marshal for the Southern district of California.

Bass Reeves, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Indian & Oklahoma Territories (1875-1907):

He was born as a slave and worked a Dy. U.S. Marshal for the “Hanging Judge” Isaac Parker.

A very brave man, he single-handedly arrested and brought to trial 19 horse thieves.

Dorothy Rose, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Northern District of Illinois (1929):

She was the youngest Dy. Marshal appointed at the age of 21 during the Great Depression.

Norman E. Sherriff, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Distt. Of Columbia (1966-1971):

He escorted a prisoner to the funeral of the prisoner’s father, where Sherriff was killed in a bloody gunfight on the church steps while he tried to prevent the prisoner from escaping with the help of his sympathisers.

Henry “Heck” Thomas, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Oklahoma Territory (1886-1911):

He was the toughest of the “Three Guardsmen” of Oklahoma. He arrested the toughest criminals. On 24.08.1896, his posse ambushed the notorious bank robber and murderer Bill Doolin and Thomas shot him dead in the ensuing gunfight.

William “Bill” Tilghman, Dy. U.S. Marshal, Oklahoma Territory (1886-1911):

He and his colleagues Heck Thomas and Chris Madsen were nicknamed the “Three Guardsmen” of Oklahoma and were instrumental in bringing law and order to the Indian and Oklahoma Territories.

William S. Tough, U.S. Marshal, Distt. of Kansas (1873-1876):


  1. Anand Varma has commented:
    "Thanks for making us know about such interesting information. Your passion for study about coin n currency is appreciable".

  2. Really informative. Enjoyed reading about the US Marshals Service and more specially about the famous 'lawmen' of the Wild West. Thanks!

    1. Thank you so much for your encouraging comment. Really appreciate.

  3. Krishnayya Ramadana has commented:
    "Lots of information compiled well Rajeev,,,,"

    1. Thank you so much Krishnayya. Encouraging as always.