Search This Blog

Friday, 8 July 2016

339) Currency of Peru: Nuevo Sol (Sun) and Centavo: (Part II): (i) Coins of the Nuevo Sol (ii) Coat of Arms of Peru (iii) Commemorative Coins: Numismatic Series on Natural Resources of Peru (iii) Commemorative Coins: Numismatic Series on “Wealth and Pride of Peru” (iv) Banknotes of the Nuevo Sol (Brief Review):



339) Currency of Peru: Nuevo Sol (Sun) and Centavo: (Part II): (i) Coins of the Nuevo Sol (ii) Coat of Arms of Peru (iii) Commemorative Coins: Numismatic Series on Natural Resources of Peru (iii) Commemorative Coins: Numismatic Series on “Wealth and Pride of Peru(iv) Banknotes of the Nuevo Sol (Brief Review):


For Part I of the Post on Peru titled “338) Currency of Peru: Nuevo Sol (Sun) and Centavo: (Part I): (i) About Peru  (ii) History-Brief recap (ii) Creation of Spanish mints in Peru (iii) Independence of Peru (iv) Experiments with currencies, including short-lived ones (v) Establishment of the Central Bank of Peru, link to which is as follows: Currency of Peru (Part I)

(For Part II of the Post on :"339) Currency of Peru: Nuevo Sol (Sun) and Centavo: (Part II): (i) Coins of the Nuevo Sol (ii) Coat of Arms of Peru (iii) Commemorative Coins: Numismatic Series on Natural Resources of Peru (iii) Commemorative Coins: Numismatic Series on “Wealth and Pride of Peru” (iv) Banknotes of the Nuevo Sol (Brief Review), please click on the following link: Please click here )

(For Part III of the Post on: " 340) Currency of Peru: Nuevo Sol (Sun) and Centavo (Part III): (i) Presently Circulating Banknotes, including descriptions of the famous Personalities and (ii) the Enigma of Ancient Heritage Cities/Cultures of Peru which feature on the Banknotes iii) The ancient communication systems of the Incas down the generations:(Please click here)


Coins of the Nuevo Sol:

In 1991, the presently circulating coins were introduced in the denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and 1 Nuevo Sol.

In 1994, 2 and 5 Nuevo Sol coins were circulated.

In 2005, a 1 Cent (Aluminium) coin was circulated.

In 2007, a 5 Cent coin was issued.

On 01.05.2011, 1 Cent coins were taken out of circulation because they had fallen into disuse.



On the Obverse, all the coins (i.e. 5, 10, 20 and 50 Centimos and 1, 2 and 5 Nuevo Soles) depict the Coat of Arms of Peru, surrounded by the name of the issuing Bank “Banco Centrale de Reserva del Peru” (meaning “Central Reserve Bank of Peru”).

On the Reverse, all coins show the denomination except for the Bi-metallic 2 and 5 Nuevo Sol coins, which also show the hummingbird and condor figures from the “Nazca Lines”.



                                 Nazca Lines – Hummingbird



                                Nazca Lines – Condor

Nazca Lines: The Nazca Lines are a series of ancient geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert in Southern Peru. They were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. The lines contain hundreds of individual figures ranging from simple to complex lines to stylised hummingbirds, spiders, monkeys, fish, sharks, orcas and lizards. Hundreds of them are simple lines or geometric shapes. There are more than 70 zoomorphic designs of birds, fish, llamas, jaguars, monkeys and human figures etc. There are also designs of phytomorphic shapes, such as trees and flowers.



                     Nazca monkey
                                              Nazca spider

Due to the dry, windless and stable climate of the plateau, the lines have been naturally preserved. It is not clear as to why the lines were made except that they are probably of religious significance. Also the lines and figures can be seen only when one of airborne above them or from the surrounding foothills, lending credence to a theory that they were made for celestial beings to see them from space.

The specifications of the coins are:

5 Centimos: Diameter: 18.0 mm; Metal Composition: Aluminium; Thickness: 1.50 mm; Weight: 1.02 gms; Edge: Smooth.

10 Centimos: Diameter: 20.5 mm; Metal Composition: Brass; Thickness: 1.26 mm; Weight: 3.50 gms; Edge: Smooth.

20 Centimos: Diameter: 23.0 mm; Metal Composition: Brass; Thickness: 1.26 mm; Weight: 4.40 gms; Edge: Smooth.

50 Centimos: Diameter: 22.0 mm; Metal Composition: Copper- Zinc-Nickel; Thickness: 1.65 mm; Weight: 5.45 gms; Edge: Reeded.



Obverse of a  1 Nuevo Sol coin minted in 2012 depicting the Coat of Arms of Peru


Reverse of a  1 Nuevo Sol coin minted in 2012 depicting the denomination of the coin "1"
1 Nuevo Sol: Diameter: 25.5 mm; Metal Composition: Copper- Zinc-Nickel; Thickness: 1.65 mm; Weight: 7.32 gms; Edge: Reeded.

2 Nuevo Soles: Diameter: 22.2 mm; Metal Composition: Bi Metallic: Outside Ring: Steel, Centre: Copper- Zinc-Nickel; Thickness: 2.07 mm; Weight: 5.62 gms; Edge: Smooth.

5 Nuevo Soles: Diameter: 24.3 mm; Metal Composition: Bi Metallic: Outside Ring: Steel, Centre: Copper- Zinc-Nickel; Thickness: 2.13 mm; Weight: 6.67 gms; Edge: Smooth.

Change of the name "Nuevo Sol" back to "Sol" wef 15.12.2015:

As on 15.12.2015, the Currency which was called “Nuevo Sol” has been named “Sol”. This is, because the users are already familiar with the designs and usage of the Nuevo Sol currency. As such it has been decided by the government to drop the term Nuevo from the Banknotes and coinage. 

During the period of transition from “Nuevo Sol” to its general acceptance as “Sol”, both terms are being used parallely to address Peruvian currency, however from 2017 onwards only the term “Sol” would be in vogue/use.

Banknotes and Coins denoted in “Nuevo Soles” would however, continue to be accepted as legal tender, till users get familiar with the “Sol” denominated currency and the Central Reserve Bank of Peru decides on a date of demonetisation of the “Nuevo Sol”.

Coat of Arms or Emblem of Peru:



                                       Coat of Arms of Peru
Armiger: Republic of Peru

Adopted on: 25.02.1825

Crest: Holm Oak Civic Crown (These represent victory and glory).

Escutcheon: Per Fess (Military belt or girdle of honour), the first per plate azure (blue) and argent (silver) in dexter (on the left side) a vicuna (one of the two wild South American camelids found in the Andes of Southern Peru, which is also the National Animal of Peru) counter-statant proper and in the sinister (on the right side) a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, a powerful anti-malarial drug and the key flavorant in tonic water) also proper, the second gules (red), a Cornucopia (symbolising Bounty of Nature) spilling coins Or (yellow or gold – with the Cornucopia representing the mineral resources of the country).

Supporters: Two National Flags of Peru and two standards on each side.

Dropping from the standards on both sides are symbolic “Quipu” or “Khipu” threads which represent an ancient Inca method for recording information, consisting of variously coloured threads knotted in different ways. In the absence of written records, the “Quipus” served as a means of recording history and passed on to the next generation, which used them as reminders of past events and stories.

These messages included information about resources in storehouses, taxes, census information, output of mines or the composition of work forces. Even poems and legends were composed and preserved on the Quipus. As such these functioned as “primitive computers” and had knotted in them the information which tied together the Inca Empire down the generations.)

Other elements: When used on the National Flag, the Coat of Arms (Escudo de Armas) is surrounded by a wreath of palm branch one on the right tied by a red and white ribbon.



                               Escudo de Armas
Commemorative Coins:

In 1965, a series of commemorative 1 Nuevo Sol coins was issued celebrating the quater-centenary (400 years) of the Lima Mint, with the Reverse reproducing a coin minted in 1565.

Some other prominent Series have been:

Numismatic Series on “Natural Resources of Peru” – coins  on the Reverse:

Anchoveta:



Depicting the designs of two anchovies (Engraulis ringens), together with an iconographic representation of anchovy fishing which were known from Moche Culture times

Cacao:



Depicting a Cacao Tree (Theobroma cacao), together with an expanded design of the Cacao fruit

Quinua:



Depicting a panicle of Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) and a pot from which abundant quinoa grain is pouring out

On the Obverses are seen the National Coat of arms, the inscription “Banco Central de Reserva del Peru” and the year of minting.

Numismatic Series on “Wealth and Pride of Peru” – coins on the Reverse:

Archaeological Site Cabeza de Vaca - Tumbes:



Depicting a “Cow Head” (or “Cabeza de Vaca”) made from adobe and stone

Vicus Pottery - Piura:



Depicting a composition of two “Vicus pottery pieces” representing a duck and a deer

Huarautambo – Pasco:

Rop huarautambo


Depicting a composition of a water fountain and an Inca bridge located at the Archaeological Site of Huarautambo in Pasco

Moquegua Architecture – Moquegua:



 Depicting an intersection of cobblestone streets lined by houses with the triangular or trapezoidal gable roofs distinctive of Moquequa Architecture

The Pusharo Petroglyphs – Madre de Dios:



Depicting some of the most representative petroglyphs or rock engravings discovered in Pusharo in the region of Alto Madre de Dios, The engravings are over 2000 year old

The Cathedral of Lima – Lima:



Depicting the Cathedral of Lima ‘titled Cathedral de Lima”

Antiguo Hotel Palace – Loreto:



Depicting the façade of the Antiguo Hotel Palace, which is an architectural master-piece and considered to be part of Peru’s Cultural Heritage. There is an inscription “ANTIGUO HOTEL PALACE 1912” on the upper side

Huaca de la Luna – La Libertad:



Depicting the God of the Mountains, one of the major Mochica divinities depicted on the walls of the temples of this ancient ceremonial site, which are ornamented with colourful geometric designs

Sacred City of Caral – Lima:



Depicting an aerial view of the Sacred City of Caral with its circular plaza. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas

Archaeological site of Tunanmarca – Junin:



Depicting a gateway to one of the circular dwellings (chullpas) of the Citadel, as well as, part of this Archaeological site

Paracas textiles – Ica:



Depicting two anthropomorphous figures used frequently in Paracas textiles

Temple of the Crossed Hands of Kotash – Huanuco:



Depicting a section of the Temple of the Crossed Hands of Kotosh in the background, with an expanded detail of one of the crossed hands clay sculptures found in this temple

Inca Temple of Huaytara – Huancavelica:



Depicting the Inca Temple of Huaytara, built by Inca Yupanqui (Pachacutec) in the early 15th Century. During colonial times, the Temple was converted into a Catholic church, the San Juan Bautista Church, where mass is celebrated present day using the niches of the Inca Temple

Kuntur Wasi” (House of Condor) – Cajamarca:



Depicting a monolith representing a deity with feline features appears in the centre of this face with the “Kuntur Wasi” Ceremonial Complex

Archaeological Complex of Vilcashuaman – Ayacucho:



Depicting the Archaeological Complex of Vilcashuaman, with the Templo del Sol and above it the San Juan Bautista Church

Real Felipe Fortress – Callao:



Depicting the King’s Tower of the Real Philipe Fortress and a pair of cannon that are now exhibited in the Peruvian Army Museum

The Saywite Stone – Apurimac:



Depicting the Saywhite Stone, a 2.5 metres high monolith with over 200 zoomorphic and phytomorphic motifs carved in the stone in the lower part of this face, with details of the motifs displayed above it

Citadel of Gran Pajaten – San Martin:



Depicting one of the walls of the Citadel of Gran Pajaten, decorated with human, geometric and bird figures

Machu Picchu – Cusco:



Depicting the archaeological complex of Machu Picchu, declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983

Monasterio de Santa Catalina – Arequipa:



Depicting the architectural ensemble of “Monasterio de Santa Catalina” with a stone well of its Plaza Socodober in the foreground, the front of one of the nun’s cells and a view of the monastery church in the background

Chullpas de Sillustani – Puno:



Depicting the tower-like structures of Sillustani built by the Collas, an Aymara speaking tribe that dominated the Titicaca region before the Incas. The Collas buried their dead inside the “Chullapas” which rose to heights of 12 metres or so

Estela de Raimondi – Ancash:



Depicting the “Estela de Raimondi”, a reflection without parallel of the artistic style of the Chavin Culture. The Stella, a sacred carved monolith which was once worshipped at the ceremonial centre of Chavin de Huantar, is made of granite and is 1.98 metres high and 74 cm wide

Kajaria Sarcophagi – Amazonas:



Depicting one of the “Kajaria Sarcophagi” found in the Amazon Andes on the edge of a cliff (Archaeological Complex of Chipuric). About 2.50 metres high, the real Sarcophagi are shaped into big anthropomorphous capsules made of clay

Tumi de Oro – Lambayeque:



Depicting the “Tumi de Oro”, a typical Peruvian short-bladed (semi-circular) knife with the mythological figure of “Naylamp” (Lambayeque Culture) as the handle

On the Obverses are seen the National Coat of Arms, the inscription “Banco Central de Reserva del Peru” and the year of minting.

Banknotes of Nuevo Sol:

In 1990, Banknotes for 10, 20, 50 and 100 Nuevos Soles were issued.

In 1995, 200 Nuevos Soles Banknotes were issued.

The dimensions of all the Banknotes are 140 x 65 mm.

Banknotes of 10 Nuevos Soles depicting Jose Quinones Gonzales and a Curtiss Hawk 75 A8 Airplane on the Front and a Caproni Ca.113 flying upside down on the Back were circulated in 1991.

The design on the Back was changed to Machu Picchu in 2011. The colour of these Banknotes is Green.

Banknotes of 20 Nuevos Soles depicting Raul Porras Barrenechea on the Front and the Interior of Torre Tagle Palace, seat of Peru’s Ministry of Foreign Relations on the Back were circulated in 1991.

The design on the Back was changed to Chan Chan/ Huaca del Dragon in 2011). The colour of these Banknotes is Orange.

Banknotes of 50 Nuevos Soles depicting Abraham Valdelomar on the Front and the Oasis of Huacachina, Ica on the Back were circulated in 1991.

The design on the Back was changed to the New Temple of Chavin de Huantar (Huarez) in 2011). The colour of these Banknotes is Brown.

Banknotes of 100 Nuevos Soles depicting Jorge Basadre on the Front and the National Library of Peru on the Back were circulated in 1992.

The design on the Back was changed to the Great Pajaten in 2011). The colour of these Banknotes is Blue.

Banknotes of 100 Nuevos Soles depicting Rose of Lima on the Front and the Convent of Santo Domingo, Lima on the Back were circulated in 1995.

The design on the Back was changed to the Sacred City of Caral-Supe in 2011). The colour of these Banknotes is Pink.

3 comments:

  1. Fantastic research and detailed article. Loved the commentary on Nasca lines, Machu Pichu, and the background on the banknotes illustrations.

    One minor edit is needed at the start of this article - 1 centavo coin was discontinued, not the 1 nervous sol

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you so much, Rahul. Checking out the change mentioned by you.

      Delete