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Sunday, 17 November 2013

122) Currency and Coinage of the Bailiwick or States of Guernsey: A British Crown Dependency"

122) Currency and Coinage of the Bailiwick or States of Guernsey: A British Crown Dependency:

Guernsey is officially termed as the “Bailiwick of Guernsey” or “Bailliage de Guernsey” (in French). A Bailiwick is defined as a district functioning under a bailie or a bailiff. 

It is a British Crown dependency (or a possession of the British Crown) in the English Channel, off the coast of Normandy. The Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick or States of Jersey are known as the Channel Islands. The British Crown is responsible for the defence of Guernsey, however, Guernsey has complete autonomy over its internal matters and some external matters. 

The issues of complete Independence from the British Crown or at least the grant of Dominion status to Guernsey and Jersey or status of a Federal State within the Commonwealth have been mooted several times, but concrete action in this direction has not fructified. (perhaps the result of the referendum in Scotland which is going to be held in 2014 –  700 years after the English were decisively defeated by the Scots led by Robert de Bruce at the famous battle of Bannockburn –  to decide whether Scotland will stay as a part of the United Kingdom or not, might start a rethinking on this subject). (For the story of King Bruce & the Spider and details of the proposed Scottish referendum, please click on the following link, which includes King Bruce on a 20 Pound Bank of Scotland Banknote under the “Famous Scots” Series: Inspirations from Scottish History - The story of King Bruce & the Spider).

As a Bailiwick, Guernsey covers all ten parishes on the Island of Guernsey as well as the islands of Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou and Lihou. Alderney and Sark are, however, governed by their own Parliaments.

Early History of the Island:

The name “Guernsey” probably originated from the Spanish “Cuerno” or Swedish “Horn” or Swiss “Gorn” which all mean “corner”. Guernsey may have originally been termed “Corner Island” in all these languages and has derived its present name as a distortion of these terms, as translated into English.

Guernsey was originally populated by Neolithic farmers as is evidenced by dolmens and menhirs still found on the islands, present day, and later populated by Britons.

By 1066 A.D. William I of Normandy (or William the Conqueror) and the first Norman King of England, ruled these islands, as the Duchy of Brittany and later as the Duchy of Normandy.

In the Middle Ages, the Islands were frequented by pirates, particularly during the Hundred Years War which commenced in 1339, with several Letters of Marques being granted by the British Crown to Privateers and pardoned pirates.

By 1372, the island was taken by Owain Lawgoch’s mercenaries, owing allegiance to the French Crown.

During the English Civil War, Guernsey, by and large, sided with the Parliamentarians, till such time, that, the Royalists were ultimately defeated in the Islands.

During the Wars against France and Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries several Guernsey privateers were granted letters of Marque by the English Crown.

Guernsey participated in World Wars I and was occupied by Germany during most of World War II.

The present political set-up:

The Lieutenant Governor is the representative of the British Crown, in Guernsey .The deliberative assembly of the “States of Guernsey” (or “les Etats de Guernsey” in French) is called the “States of Deliberation” consisting of 45 People’s Deputies. Each of the ten Parishes of Guernsey, is governed by a “Douzine or a Douzenier”.

The “Royal Court of Guernsey” (or “La Cour Royale de Guernsey” in French) is headed by a Bailiff who presides and determines issues of law and there are 12 and 16 Jurats who determine issues of fact.

Early Guernsey Coinage/currency:

In 1827, Guernsey issued the first Banknotes denominated in pounds.

By 1830, Guernsey was minting copper coins called “doubles”. (The term “doubles” having been derived from the French “double deniers”).  The value of this coin was equivalent to a “liard” or a 3-denier coin. The coins circulating in Guernsey were in the denominations of 1, 2, 4 and 8 doubles, with the 8 double coin being termed a “Guernsey penny”. Twelve 8 double coins were equivalent to a “Guernsey shilling” which was worth 1.2 francs.

Until 1834, coins of the “French Livre” were circulating in Guernsey as legal tender.

In 1848, an effort was made to declare the British Pound as the circulating currency in place of the French denominated Guernsey coins, which was short-lived.

In 1850, the French currency was again re-circulated in addition to local Guernsey coinage/currency as the French were preferred by the locals to the English Pound.

In 1870, another attempt was made to reintroduce British coinage and Banknotes with the British shilling being equal to 12.5 Guernsey pence.

By 1873, Bank of England Banknotes were declared legal tender for Guernsey.

Until 1921, thereafter, French francs were the circulating currency. 

After World War I ended in 1921, the French franc got substantially devalued, forcing Guernsey to adopt a pound equal to the pound sterling.

Since 1921, Guernsey has been in the currency union with the United Kingdom.

New Banknotes and British silver coinage began to circulate along with double coins.

From 1956, 3 pence coins were circulated which had been specifically minted for Guernsey.

In 1971, Guernsey decimalised the pound into 100 pence, in keeping with the nomenclature adopted by the British Isles and issued several denominations of pence coins and later 1 and 2 pound coins.

Guernsey issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes. UK coinage and English, Scottish and Northern Irish-faced Banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably.

Banknotes of the States of Guernsey:

In 1827, the States of Guernsey circulated one pound Banknotes for the first time.

In 1861, the “Guernsey Banking Company”, a commercial bank, pitched in by issuing one pound Banknotes too.

Thereafter, in 1886, the “Guernsey Commercial Banking Company” also, began to issue one pound Banknotes.

In 1914, the authority to issue Banknotes was taken over entirely by the States of Guernsey, superseding the private commercial bank’s authority to issue any banknotes. Under this policy, the States of Guernsey also issued Banknotes in the denominations of 5 and 10 shillings as well as 6 and 12 francs. 

Nevertheless, the Banknotes issued by the Commercial Banks prior to this directive, continued to be accepted as legal tender till 1924.

In 1921, the Guernsey Banknotes were over-stamped “British” indicating that with the decline in value of the French Franc, the Islands were aligning themselves with the British Pound which was the stronger currency of the two. 

From 1924, 10 shillings Banknotes were issued without any reference to the franc. Owing to inflationary pressures, printing of the 5 shilling Banknote was discontinued.

In 1941, during World War II, because of its strategic importance, Guernsey was occupied by the German forces which issued several denominations of pence and shillings Banknotes, printed on States of Guernsey watermarked paper.

After 1945, following the defeat of the Axis forces, the States of Guernsey stopped all pence and shillings denominated Banknotes below 10 shillings and introduced a new five (5) pound Banknote.

Later in 1971, upon decimalisation of the currency, the 10 shillings Banknote was replaced by the 50 new pence coin.

In 1975, ten (10) Pound Banknotes were introduced.

In 1980, twenty (20) Pound Banknotes were introduced.

In 1994, fifty (50) Pound Banknotes were circulated.

An interesting feature is, that, although 1 and 2 pound coins have replaced these denominations of Banknotes, the one pound Banknote still circulates as legal tender.

Commemorative Banknotes:

In 2012, a twenty (20) Pound commemorative Banknote was issued to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.

On the Front, the Banknote bears a serial number starting with the Prefix “QE60” short for “Queen Elizabeth 60”. On the top centre of the Banknote is mentioned “STATES OF GUERNSEY” and “On the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen”. The commemorative laurel wreath is in the lower centre of the Banknote encircling the inscription “QUEEN ELIZABETH II DIAMOND JUBILEE – EIIR- 1952-2012”. The Serial number of this Banknote is 000425, indicating that this Banknote is the 425th Banknote printed out of a total of 150000 Banknotes issued by Guernsey on the occasion. The Banknote has been printed by “De La Rue” the name of which appears printed vertically on the right hand side of the Banknote. Beautiful floral patterns deck the background of this Banknote. On the lower left is an image of St. James Concert Hall.

On the Back of the Banknote is shown St. Sampson’s Church and Vale Castle. In the centre foreground are two yachts.

(Vale Castle: Archaeological evidence shows that a defence earthwork stood on this site in the early Iron Age. It is believed that the earliest parts of the stone built castle visible today, date back to the 15th century. In the 18th century, several barrack blocks were built within the castle walls, but later demolished. During World War II, occupying German forces fortified the castle and the surrounding areas, ruins of which are still seen present day). 

(St. Sampson’s Church: This Church is believed to be the oldest in Guernsey and it is located on the coast where St. Samson (“Samson of Dol”) arrived from Brittany on the island in 550 AD, having studied in Wales prior to that, intending to convert the Islanders to Christianity. The nave and chancel were completed in 1350. St. Sampson is presently the second biggest port in Guernsey).

 (The States of Jersey has also issued a 100 Pound Banknote for this occasion which contains the first holographic portrait of the Queen. To read about this and other Jersey Banknotes, please click on the following link: Currency/Coinage of the States of Jersey)

In July 2013, a commemorative one (1) Pound Banknote was issued to mark the bicentenary of the first commercial operation of Thomas De La Rue founder of the Company, which prints Banknotes for several countries. The Front of this Banknote has a Prefix “TDLR” standing for “Thomas De La Rue” and a portrait of De La Rue is carried on the Back of the Banknote.

 This commemorative Banknote brought for my collection by Jayant Biswas.
(Thomas De La Rue (24.03.1793-07.06.1866): was a printer from Guernsey who, from humble origins, went on to set up “De La Rue plc”, a printing company, which is, presently, the World’s largest commercial security printer and papermaker, headquartered in Basingstoke, Hampshire. Thomas began his career as an apprentice to a master-printer at St. Peter Port in 1803. He moved to London in 1816 and started making straw hats. Later, in 1821, he set up business as a stationer and printer. In 1831, he secured a “Royal Warrant” for his business to print playing cards. In 1855, his Company started printing postage stamps and by 1860, De La Rue was printing Banknotes. By 1921, De La Rue plc. was sold by his sons to other owners. 

Today, De La Rue sells high-security paper and printing technology for over 150 national currencies. It also produces security documents for items like Passports, Tax stamps, Traveller’s cheques, Driving licences, Bank cheques, postage stamps et al).

Banknotes presently in circulation in the States of Guernsey:

The Front of the One Pound Banknote shows the Market at St. Peter Port. On the top of the Banknote is mentioned the country of issue “THE STATES OF GUERNSEY” If you look closely, you will see that the Market has a 18th or 19th century look as evidenced by the dresses of the market-goers. On the bottom left is the emblem/Coat of Arms of Guernsey. 

The serial number of this Banknote is very interesting. If the numeral “9” at the beginning of the number was the numeral “2”, this serial number would have qualified for being called a “fancy number” and the Banknote would have been valued at five to ten times more than its face value. 

The size of this Banknote is 128 mm x 65 mm and its colour is green.

The Back of the One Pound Banknote depicts the portrait of Daniel De Lisle Brock, Bailiff of Guernsey (1762 – 1842), the Royal Court at St Peter Port, 1840.

(Daniel De Lisle Brock: He was the bailiff of Guernsey from 1821 to 1842. Born on 10.12.1762 at St. Peter Port, in an English family which had settled in Guernsey in the sixteenth century, he represented Guernsey in four delegations sent to London to protest against some measures affecting trade and traditional privileges of the island, prior to his appointment as bailiff. Soon after his appointment as bailiff in 1821, he again represented Guernsey in London to protest against the extension of an English law to Guernsey prohibiting the import of corn until the prices should reach 80 s a quarter. Then again, he led delegations sent to protest against a proposed extension of the power of writs of “habeas corpus” to the island which affected the rights of the citizens to be tried in their own courts (1832), against a proposed deprivation of the Channel Islands of their right of exporting corn into England free of duty (1835) et al. 

His diplomatic successes against the unjust laws being imposed on the Islands have made him a popular figure in Guernsey).

(St. Peter Port: is the capital of Guernsey and the main port. In “Guernesiais” and in French, it is called “St. Pierre Port”. A small town, it was a trading post since Roman times. Residents of St. Peter’s Port are nicknamed “les Villais” (or the “townspeople) or “clichards” in Guernesais).

Scan image of the Royal Court

(Royal Court at St. Peter Port: The Royal Court has existed at its present location since the early 1800s and covers several activities in addition to the usual civil and criminal court cases,  viz: meetings of Guernsey Parliament, civic receptions and ceremonial occasions, marriage ceremonies, maintaining records of births, deaths, marriages property conveyances etc.

The Front of the Five Pound Banknote shows a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and the Town Church, St. Peter Port. The size of this Banknote is 137 mm x 70 mm and its colour is pink. 

(Town Church, St. Peter Port: It was originally known as “Sancti Petri de Portu”. It is also known as the Cathedral Church and is the finest in the Channel Islands. The Church is first mentioned in documents in the 11th century, when it was believed to have been built by William the Conqueror of Normandy, the original building being made of wood. The present structure was built over a period of 200 years, the chancel being completed in the 12th century and the chapel in 1462. The church was completed in 1475. A copy of the text of an order from Pope Sixtus IV granting neutrality to the Island is displayed in the church). 

The Back of the Five Pound Banknote depicts an image of Fort Grey and Hanois Lighthouse, 1862.

(Fort Grey: nicknamed the “cup and saucer” because of its look is a “Martello tower” located on a rock in Rocquaine Bay in St. Peter, Guernsey. In French the rock on which the tower is built is called the “Chateau de Rocquaine” (meaning “Castle of Rocquaine”). 

The Fort with its white tower was built as a defence by the British in 1804 during the Napoleonic Wars and is named after Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey, who was Governor of Guernsey from 1797 to 1807. Like the other two Guernsey Martello towers, Fort Saumarez and Fort Hommet, a battery of a 24 pounde carronade was placed atop the fort. Fort Grey has since been converted into a shipwreck museum).

(Hanois Lighthouse: This Lighthouse was constructed in Cornish granite between 1860 and 1862. It is situated on a rock called “Le Biseau” or “La Bise” and was set up as several shipwrecks took pace off the western coast of Guernsey).

The Front of the Ten Pound Banknote shows a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and Elizabeth College. The size of this Banknote is 142 mm x 75 mm and its colour is blue-orange. 

(Elizabeth College: is located in St. Peter Port, Guernsey and it was established in 1563. The College building at that time was the Cottage on the corner of the current campus, near the top of Smith Street (“Le Rue des Forges”). The present building conceived in 1826, is a prominent feature on St. Peter port skyline. The College on shifting was renamed the “Royal College of Elizabeth”).

The Back of the Ten Pound Banknote depicts Saumarez Park, Les Niaux Watermill and Le Trepied Dolmen.

(Saumarez Park: This Park is one of the Island’s main attractions and is located in the Parish of Castel. This is the largest park in Guernsey, having many facilities including the National Trust of Guernsey’s Folk and Costume Museum. The park boasts of several exotic species of flowering plants, including Camellias and Magnolias).

(Les Niaux Watermill:  Les Niaux watermill is located in the Talbot valley of Guernsey from around 1366 when it was referred to as “le Neuf Moulin” or “the new mill”. The patriarch of the family of its original owners is said to have come to Guernsey as a knight in the army of William the Conqueror in 1066. The original use of this mill as well as 12 other such mills in existence by 1832 in Guernsey was for grinding corn. Later, Les Niaux watermill was converted to a flock mill in the late 1800s to tear rags for use as padding for uniforms).  

(Le Trepied Dolmen at Le Catioroc: It is believed that at the beginning of the 17th century Le Catioroc was frequented by witches and wizards participating in witchcraft and “devil worship”. It was treated as a venue for sabbats. Witchcraft trials were held under Bailiff Amias de Carteret during 1600 to 1630 and several under-trials “testified” to this fact. This led to the dolmen being looked upon with fear of the arcane practices/sciences and people avoided visiting the place. Also, this left the site unaffected/spoilt by visitors. 

The pre-historic passage grave was built in the Neolithic period (4000-2500 BC). Le Trepied is a single chamber tomb, 5.5 metres in length and 2.0 metres at its widest point with three capstones, one of which was returned to its original position in the 1870s after it had fallen off.

This Dolmen is an integral part of the Island’s megalithic period history when the site was said to be a very active centre of “paganism”).

The Front of the Twenty Pound Banknote shows a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and St. James Concert Hall. The size of this Banknote is 150 mm x 80 mm and its colour is pink. 

The Back of the Twenty Pound Banknote depicts Vale Castle and St. Sampson’s Church

 The Front of the Fifty Pound Banknote shows a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and Royal Court House. The size of this Banknote is 156 mm x 85 mm and its colour is brown. 
The Back of the Fifty Pound Banknote depicts Point de la Mare, La Gran’mere, a letter of Marque and St. Andrew’s Church.

(Letter of Marque: This was a licence granted by a Sovereign to a subject, authorising the subject to make reprisals on the subjects of a hostile State for injuries done to him by the enemy’s armed forces. Hence, it permitted the subject to fit out an armed sea-going vessel or privateer and employ it in the capture of the merchant shipping of the enemy’s subjects, the holder of the letters of Marque being entitled by International Law to  commit against the hostile nation acts which would otherwise have been condemned as piracy. Granting of such Letters of Marque was abolished by European Nations after the Congress of Pars in 1856).

(St. Andrew’s Church:  Originally known as “St. Andre de la Pommeraye” (or “St. Andrew of the apple orchard), this was one of the smallest churches on the Island, dating back to the 12th century. Nevertheless, in the 15th century it more than doubled in size with additional constructions. It is made entirely from large boulders retrieved from the sea. It is located near a spring called “La Fontaine de St. Clair originally said to have curative powers. The apple orchard has long since disappeared).

Emblem of Guernsey:

 The Coat of Arms of the Bailiwick of Guernsey consists of a red shield with three gold lions (historically described as leopards), passant guardant (one forepaw raised) surmounted by a sprig (or a small branch of leaves). A shield with these three lions is also the emblem of England. (For more details of the Royal Coat of Arms of England please click on the following link:The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom)

 It was adopted in Guernsey when Edward I sent a single seal in 1279 to Guernsey which included the seal with the 3 lions of the King for use in the Channel Islands. The shield without the words which appear on the Bailiwick seal was sanctioned for use in Guernsey by Edward VII in 1906.

Flag of Guernsey:

The Guernsey flag shows a red cross of St. George (who is the patron saint of England), which reflects the Island’s constitutional association with the English Crown. There is also a gold cross shown on the banner of William the Conqueror, (said to have been given to him by Pope Alexander II before the Battle of Hastings) which represents the Guernsey’s historic connection with the Duchy of Normandy.  This flag was first unfurled on 09.05.1985 on the occasion of the 40th Anniversary of the Island’s liberation from the German Occupation. (The earlier Flag was a simple Cross of Saint George).

Coins presently in circulation in the States of Guernsey:

In keeping with the introduction of 5 and 10 new pence coins in 1968 and 50 new pence coins in 1969 in Great Britain (i.e. before decimalisation in 1971), Guernsey, also circulated these denominations of coins as well as ½, 1 and 2 new pence coins.

In 1977, the word “new” was dropped from Guernsey coinage, as users had by now become familiar with the decimal coinage.

In 1981, a one pound coin was introduced in Guernsey, two years before this denomination was circulated in the United Kingdom.

In 1982, the 20 pence coin was introduced.

In 1998, the 2 Pound coin was circulated.

The First Series of Decimal coinage was issued from 1968 to 1984.

The Second Series of Decimal coinage introduced in 1985 includes the following denominations (the half penny not being included in this Series due to inflationary costs of minting):
                          Obverses of presently circulating coins
                       Reverses of presently circulating coins
One Penny (depicts a crab on the reverse), two Pence (depicts a Guernsey cow on the reverse), Five Pence (depicts a yacht on the reverse), Ten Pence (depicts tomatoes on the reverse), Twenty Pence (depicts the light industry and Map of Guernsey on the reverse), Fifty Pence (depicts Guernsey Freesias on the reverse), One Pound (depicts a Finance motif on the reverse) and Two Pounds (depicts the Flag of Guernsey motif on the reverse).

(Freesias: Freesias are flowering plants of South African origin having white, yellow or pink tubular fragrant flowers).

(Guernsey cow: This is a breed of cattle used in dairy farming. It is fawn in colour with white markings and is particularly renowned for its rich flavour of milk).

As an interesting tit-bit, Guernsey was the last point when the ill-fated ship the “Titanic” crossed the British Isles. Guernsey Post has issued a set of postage stamps marking various facets of this legendary doomed ship while the Alderney Islands has issued a five Pound coin to mark the 100th Anniversary of the Titanic’s voyage (please click here for more details The centenary of the ill-fated Titanic ).

(The Banknotes shown in the above post are from the collection of Jayant Biswas. Post researched and written and Banknotes scanned by Rajeev Prasad).



British Crown Dependencies:

1) Specimen Banknotes from the States of Jersey

2) Coinage and Currency from the States of Jersey

3) Currency & Coinage of the Bailiwick of Guernsey

4) Currency & Coinage of Gibraltar : An Overseas Territory of Great Britain

5) Coinage of Gibraltar: (A British Overseas Territory): An Uncirculated Decimal Coin Collection Set minted by the Tower Mint, UK in 2010
6) The Isle of Man: An Uncirculated Decimal Coin Collection Set minted by Pobjoy Mint, UK in 2015

7) The Centenary of the ill-fated Titanic (15.04.1912 - 15.04.2012): An Alderney Five Pound Coin Commemorating the Maritime Legend

8) "Man of Steel": A Superman Movie: A set of stamps brought out in 2013 by Jersey post, the States of Jersey, commemorating Henry William Dalgliesh Cavill who played Superman in the Movie

9) Coins & Currency of Bermuda

10) The Bailiwick of Jersey - Presently circulating coinage - Pounds and Pence 

11) St. Helena & Ascension Islands: An Uncirculated Coin Set from 2003 

12) The Legend of the "HMAV Bounty" is interwoven with the heritage of the Pitcairn Islands: An uncirculated coin set from Pitcairn Islands in 2009 depicting the icons/relics of the Bounty minted by the New Zealand Mint 

Famous Battles

1) Bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's Exile to St. Helena: (Part I): A One Crown Commemorative coin issued by the Ascension Island (minted by Pobjoy Mint UK) 

2) Bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's Exile to st. Helena: (Part II) 1) A 5 GBP Coin issued by the Royal Mint UK. 2) A"Drie Landen Zilverset" ( ot the "Three Lands Silver set") containing coins issued by the Royal Dutch Mint including coins of Netherlands, Belgium and UK

3) Commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Britain by issuing a 50 Pence coin by the Royal Mint UK

Gold Coins:
1) Gold Sovereigns issued in 2013 & 2014 by MMTC-PAMP in India under licence from the Royal Mint, UK, carrying the "I" Mint Mark

2) Gold Half-Sovereigns minted by MMTC-PAMP in India in 2014 under licence from the Royal Mint UK bearing the "I" Mint Mark 

Silver Coins:

1) A 20 Pound Silver coin minted for the first timr by the royal Mint UK: reverse design carries the famous St. George slaying the dragon design found on Gold Sovereigns 

British India Coinage:

 1) East India Company Quarter Anna Copper Coin which is one of the first issues under the Coinage Act 1835

2) Victoria Coinage: When she was Queen and afterwards Empress

3) Edward VII: King & Emperor  Coinage

4) George V King Emperor Coinage

5) George VI: The last of the British India Emperors Coinage 

Other British Royalty: 

1) Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Celebrations (1952-2012): A Five Pound Commemorative coin issued by the Royal Mint, UK

2) Commemorating Queen Elizabeth II's Coronation in 1953: A Five Pound Coin minted by the Royal Mint UK in 2013, depicting the Imperial State Crown

3) The Royal Coat of Arms of the UK: Great British 2012 Coin Set (Uncirculated) issued by the Royal Mint UK

4) Prince George's Christening Ceremony celebrated with coins issued by the Royal Mint UK in 2013

5) The British Empire:  A Case of Numismatic "segregation": (Guest Post by Rahul Kumar)

6) 1) The Portrait Collection: Various Portraits of Queen Elizabeth II on Coinage 2) The Fourth & Final Circulating coinage of the Portrait designed by Ian Rank-Broadley and the First Edition of the portrait of the Queen made by Jody Clark

 British Coinage:

1) The contribution of the Great British One-Pound coins in keeping alive the historical legends/emblems/heritage of the UK (1983 onwards)

2) Transformation of a Five shilling Coin (Crown) into the UK Twenty-five Pence & then the Five Pound Coin

3) Transformation of the Two Shilling Coin (Florin) Coin into the UK Ten Pence

4) The 350th Anniversary of the Guinea: A Two Pound Coin issued by the Royal Mint UK celebrating the milestone

 Commemorative British Coinage:

 1) Commemorating the Bicentenary of Charles Dickens: A Two pound coin celebrating his literary contributions during the Victorian Era

 2) Commemorating 50 Years of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - presently called the World Wide Fund for Nature by issue of a Fifty Pence coin by the Royal Mint, UK

3) Coins commemorating London Olympics & Paralympics (2012)

4) Commemorating 150 Years of the London Underground : Two pound Coins minted by the Royal Mint UK, showing the "Roundel" logo and a train emerging from a tunnel 

5) Commemorating the 100th Birth anniversary of Christopher Ironside with his" Royal Arms" design on a 50 Pence coin issued by the Royal Mint, UK 

6) 800th Anniversary of the Magna Carta - the Universal Guidepost to Liberty and Freedom

Inspirations from Scottish History: 

1) The Legend of King Bruce & the Spider on Banknotes

Banknotes from Scotland:
1) Commemorating Sir William Arrol and his creation the Forth Rail Bridge by issues of Britain's first ever 5 Pound Polymer Banknote


  1. Ramchandra Lalingkar has commented on 17.11.2013:
    "Very interesting post indeed. It throws light on the fact "How British ruled other countries, including India as well as some non-descript small countries during their colonial kingdom". However, it is also a fact that wherever they ruled, they established an 'Administrative System' which enabled them to rule with ease, but ultimately became handy for the local leaders/administrators after these countries were 'freed' by the British - may be due to their willingness or due to pressure from the people's movement to get 'free' from the clutches of British. Thanks".

  2. Thank you so much for the detailed insight. As a corollary, in the Indian context, the Administrative system established by the British, starting with their first major establishment at Fort St. George, Madras (present day Chennai), incuding their filing and retrieval systems are still, by and large, followed by Indian Administrations, even 66 years after Independence.